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Journals 2018-03-28T21:40:57+00:00

Journals 

2018

1. A. Ranjan, F.M. Puglisi, N. Raghavan, S.J. O’Shea, K. Shubhakar, P. Pavan, A. Padovani, L. Larcher and K.L. Pey, “Random telegraph noise in 2D hexagonal nitride dielectric films”,  Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 112, Issue-13, (2018).

2. A. Ranjan, N. Raghavan, S.J. O’Shea, S. Mei, M. Bosman, K. Shubhakar and K.L. Pey, “Conductive atomic force microscope study of bipolar and thershold resistive switching in 2D hexagonal boron nitride films”,  Scientific Reports, Vol. 8, 2854, (2018).

3. S. Mei, N. Raghavan, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Stochastic modelling of FinFET degredation based on a resistor network embedded metropolis monte carlo simulations”,  IEEE Transactions on Electronic Devices, Vol. 65, Issue-2, (2018).

4. L. Laiqiang, K. Shubhakar, S. Mei, N. Raghavan, B. Liu, J. Y. Huang, … and K.L. Pey, “Impact of carbon doping on polysilicon grain size distribution and yield enhancement for 40 nm embedded non-volatile memory applications”,  IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, Vol. PP, Issue-99, (2018).

2017

1. R. Thamankar, F. Puglisi, A. Ranjan, N. Raghavan, K. Shubhakar, J. Molina, L. Larcher, A. Padovani, P. Pavan, S.J. O’Shea and K.L. Pey, “Localized Characterization of Charge Transport and Random Telegraph Noise at the Nanoscale in HfO2 films combining Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Multi-Scale Simulations”,  Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 122, Issue 2, 024301, (2017).

2016

1. A. Ranjan, N. Raghavan, J. Molina, S.J. O’Shea, K. Shubhakar and K.L. Pey, “Analysis of quantum conductance, read disturb and switching statistics in HfO2 RRAM using conductive AFM”, Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 64, pp. 172-178, (2016).

2. K. Shubhakar, S. Mei, M. Bosman, N. Raghavan, A. Ranjan, S.J. O’Shea and K.L. Pey, “Conductive filament formation at grain boundary locations in polycrystalline HfO2-based MIM stacks – Computational and physical insight”, Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 64, pp.204-209, (2016).

3. R. Thamankar, N. Raghavan, J. Molina, F.M. Puglisi, S.J. O’Shea, K. Shubhakar, L. Larcher, P. Pavan, A. Padovani and K.L. Pey, “Single vacancy defect spectroscopy on HfO2 using random telegraph noise signals from scanning tunneling microscopy”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 119, No. 8, 084304, (2016).

4. S. Mei, M. Bosman, N. Raghavan, X. Wu and K.L. Pey, “Compliance current dominates evolution of NiSi2 defect size in Ni/dielectric/Si RRAM devices”, Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 61, Issue 6, pp.71-77, (2016).

2015 – 2011

5. N. Raghavan, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Probabilistic insight to possibility of new filament nucleation during repeated cycling of conducting bridge memory”, Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 55, Issue 9, pp. 1412-1416, (2015).

6. N. Raghavan, D.D. Frey, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Statistics of retention failure in the low resistance state for hafnium oxide RRAM using a Kinetic Monte Carlo approach”, Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 55, Issue 9, pp. 1422-1426, (2015).

7. K. Shubhakar, M. Bosman, O. A. Neucheva, Y. C. Loke, N. Raghavan, R. Thamankar, A. Ranjan, S. J. O’Shea, and K. L. Pey, “An SEM/STM based nanoprobing and TEM study of breakdown locations in HfO2/SiOx dielectric stacks for failure analysis”, Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 55, Issue 9, pp. 1450-1455, (2015).

8. X. Wu, S. Mei, M. Bosman, N. Raghavan, X.X. Zhang, D. Cha, K. Li and K.L. Pey, “Evolution of Filament Formation in Ni/HfO2/SiOx/Si‐Based RRAM Devices”, Advanced Electronic Materials, Issue 1, No. 11, (2015).

9. W. Liu, A. Padovani, L. Larcher, N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, “Analysis of Correlated Gate and Drain Random Telegraph Noise in Post-Soft Breakdown TiN/HfLaO/nMOSFETs”, Electron Device Letters, IEEE 35 (2), 157-159, (2014).

10. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, K. Shubhakar, “High-κ dielectric breakdown in nanoscale logic devices–Scientific insight and technology impact“, Microelectronics Reliability, 54 (5), 847-860, (2014).

11. K. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey, et al., “Impact of local structural and electrical properties of grain boundaries in polycrystalline HfO2 on reliability of SiOx interfacial layer”, Microelectronic Reliability, Vol. 54, pp. 1712-1717 (2014).

12. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey, et al., “Leakage current and structural analysis of annealed HfO2/La2O3 and CeO2/La2O3 dielectric stacks: A nanoscopic study”, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, 03D125-1, Vol. 32(3) 2014.

13. W.H. Liu, K.L. Pey, N. Raghavan, X. Wu and M. Bosman, “Triggering voltage for post-breakdown random telegraph noise in HfLaO dielectric metal gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors and its reliability implications“, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 111, Issue 2, 024101, 2012.

14. H. L. Qin, K. E. J. Goh, C. Troadec, M. Bosman, and K. L. Pey, “The electronic barrier height of silicon native oxides at different oxidation stages”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 111, 054111, 2012.

15. H. L. Qin, K. E. J. Goh, M. Bosman, K. L. Pey and C. Troadec, “Subthreshold characteristics of ballistic electron emission spectra”, Journal of Applied Physics, 111, 013701, 2012.

16. H. L. Qin, Z. Q. Liu, C. Troadec, K. E. J. Goh, M. Bosman, B. S. Ong, S. Y. Chiam and K. L. Pey, “Barrier height determination of Au/Oxidized GaAs/n-GaAs using ballistic electron emission spectroscopy”, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, 30, 011805, 2012.

17. R. I. Made, K.L. Pey et al., “Experimental characterization and modeling of the mechanical properties of Cu-Cu thermocompression bonds for three-dimensional integrated circuits“, Acta Materialia,60, 578 (2012).

18. Z. Z. Lwin, K. L. Pey, Q. Zhang, M. Bosman, Q. Liu, C. L. Gan, P. K. Singh, and S. Mahapatra, “Study of charge distribution and charge loss in dual-layer metal-nanocrystal-embedded high-κ/SiO2 gate stack” Applied Physics Letters, 100, 193109 (2012).

19. H. L. Qin, K. E. J. Goh, M. Bosman, X. Li, K. L. Pey, and C. Troadec, “Effect of Surface Contamination on the Electron Tunneling in the High Bias Range”, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A, 30(4), 041402-1 (2012).

20. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, X. Wu, W.H. Liu, M. Bosman, “Percolative Model and Thermodynamic Analysis of Oxygen-Ion-Mediated Resistive Switching“, IEEE Electron Device Letters, 33, 5, (2012).

21. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, X. Li, W.H. Liu, X. Wu, M. Bosman and T. Kauerauf, “Very low reset current for RRAM achieved in the oxygen vacancy controlled regime“, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp.716-718, (2011).

22. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, W.H. Liu, X. Wu, X. Li and M. Bosman, “Evidence for compliance controlled oxygen vacancy and metal filament based resistive switching mechanisms in RRAM”, Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 88, Issue 7, pp.1124-1128, (2011).

23. K.L. Pey, N. Raghavan, X. Wu, W.H. Liu, X. Li, M. Bosman, K. Shubhakar, Z.Z. Lwin, Y.N. Chen, H. Qin and T. Kauerauf, “Physical analysis of breakdown in high-κ / metal gate stacks using TEM/EELS and STM for reliability enhancement“, Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 88, Issue 7, pp.1365-1372,  (2011).

24. W.H. Liu, K.L. Pey, X. Wu, N. Raghavan, A. Padovani, L. Larcher, L. Vandelli, M. Bosman and T. Kauerauf, “Threshold shift observed in resistive switching in metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors and the effect of forming gas anneal“, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, Issue 23, 232909, (2011).

25. X. Wu, K.L. Pey, N. Raghavan, W.H. Liu, X. Li, P. Bai, G. Zhang and M. Bosman, “Using post-breakdown conduction study in MIS structure to better understand resistive switching mechanism in MIM stack“, Nanotechnology, Vol. 22, No. 45, 455702, (2011).

26. X. Wu, Z. Fang, K. Li, M. Bosman, N. Raghavan, X. Li, H.Y. Yu, N. Singh, G.Q. Lo, X.X. Zhang and K.L. Pey, “Chemical insight into origin of forming-free RRAM devices“, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 19, Issue 13, 133504, (2011).

27. X. Wu, K. Li, N. Raghavan, M. Bosman, Q.X. Wang, D. Cha, X.X. Zhang and K.L. Pey, “Uncorrelated multiple conductive filament nucleation and rupture in ultra-thin high-κ dielectric based RRAM“, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, 093502, (2011).

28. Z.Z. Lwin, K.L. Pey, N. Raghavan, Y.N. Chen and S. Mahapatra, “New leakage mechanism and dielectric breakdown layer detection in metal nanocrystals embedded dual layer memory gate stack“, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp.800-802, (2011).

29. N. Raghavan, W.H. Liu, X. Li, X. Wu, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Filamentation mechanism of resistive switching in fully-silicided high-κ gate stacks“, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp.455-457, (2011).

30. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, X. Wu, W.H. Liu, X. Li, M. Bosman and T. Kauerauf, “Oxygen soluble gate electrodes for prolonged high-κ gate stack reliability“, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp.252-254, (2011).

31. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, K. Shubhakar and M. Bosman, “Modified percolation model for polycrystalline high-κ gate stack with grain boundary defects“, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp.78-80, (2011).

32. K. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey, S.S. Kushvaha, S.J. O’Shea, N. Raghavan, M. Bosman, M. Kouda, K. Kakushima and H. Iwai, “Grain boundary assisted degradation and breakdown study in cerium oxide gate dielectric using scanning tunneling microscopy“, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, 072902, (2011).

2010 – 2006

33. X. C. Wang, H. Y. Zheng, C. W. Tan, F. Wang, H. Y. Yu, and K. L. Pey, “Femtosecond laser induced surface nanostructuring and simultaneous crystallization of amorphous thin silicon film”, Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 18, pp. 19379-19385, 2010.

34. X. Li, W. H. Liu, N. Raghavan, M. Bosman and K. L. Pey, “Resistive switching in NiSi gate MOS transistors”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, Issue 20, 2010.

35. M. Bosman, Y. Zhang, K. Cheng, X. Li, X. Wu, K. L. Pey, C. T. Lin, Y. W. Chen, S. H. Hsu, and C. H. Hsu, “The distribution of chemical elements in Al- or La-capped high-k/metal gate stacks”, Applied Physics Letters, 97, 103504, 2010.

36. Güzeltürk, E.Mutlugün, X.D. Wang, K.L. Pey and H. V. Demir, “Enhancement of photovoltaic radial junction nanopillar architecture integrating semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystals as light harvesters”, Applied Physics Letters, 97, 093111, 2010.

37. X. Wu, D. B. Migas, X. Li, M. Bosman, N. Raghavan, V. E. Borisenko, and K. L. Pey, “Role of oxygen vacancies in HfO2-based gate stack breakdown”, Applied Physics Letters, 96, 172901, 2010.

38. X. Wu, K. L. Pey, G. Zhang, P. Bai, X. Li, W. H. Liu, and N. Raghavan, “Electrode material dependent breakdown and recovery in advanced high-k/gate stacks”, Applied Physics Letters, 96, 202903,2010.

39. L. Wu, H. Y. Yu, X. Li, K. L. Pey, J. S. Pan, J. W. Chai, Y. S. Chiu, C. T. Lin, J. H. Xu, H. J. Wann, X. F. Yu, D. Y. Lee, K. Y. Hsu, and H. J. Tao, “Thermal stability of TiN metal gate prepared by atomic layer deposition or physical vapor deposition on HfO2 high-K dielectric”, Applied Physics Letters, 96, 113510, 2010.

40. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, W.H. Liu and M. Bosman, “Post breakdown gate current low frequency noise spectrum as a detection tool for high-κ and interfacial layer breakdown”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 31, No. 9, pp.1035-1037, 2010.

41. Andrea Padovani, L. Morassi, N. Raghavan, L. Larcher, W.H. Liu, K.L. Pey and G. Bersuker, “A physical model for post-breakdown digital gate current noise”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 31, No. 9, pp.1032-1034, 2010.

42. B.S. Ong, K.L. Pey, C.Y. Ong, C.S. Tan, C.L. Gan, H. Cai, D.A. Antoniadis and E.A. Fitzgerald, “Effect of using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) WSi2 and Post Metallization Annealing (PMA) on GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors”, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, Vol. 13, 9, H328-H331, 2010.

43. Y. Ong, K. L. Pey, C. M. Ng, B. S. Ong, C. P. Wong, Z. X. Shen, Z. X. Xing, X. C. Wang, H. Y. Zheng, L. Chan, “A Comparative Study on Si activation in GaAs between Laser Annealing and Rapid Thermal Annealing”, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, Vol. 13, 6, H200-H202, 2010.

44. N. Raghavan, W.H. Liu, X. Li, X. Wu, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Filamentation mechanism of resistive switching in fully-silicided high-κ gate stacks”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp.455-457, 2010.

45. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, X. Wu, W.H. Liu, X. Li, M. Bosman and T. Kauerauf, “Oxygen soluble gate electrodes for prolonged high-κ gate stack reliability”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp.252-254, 2010.

46. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, K. Shubhakar and M. Bosman, “Modified percolation model for polycrystalline high-K gate stack with grain boundary defects”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp.78-80, 2010.

47. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, W.H. Liu, X. Wu and X. Li, “Unipolar Recovery of Dielectric Breakdown in Fully Silicided high-κ gate stacks and its reliability implications”, Applied Physics Letters, 96, 142901, 2010.

48. X. Li, C.H. Tung, K.L. Pey and VL Lo, “The physical origin of random telegraph noise after dielectric breakdown, Applied Physics Letters, 94, 132904, 2009.

49. HL Leong, CL Gan, CV Thompson, KL Pey and H Li, “Experimental Characterization and Modeling of the Contact Resistance of Cu-Cu Bonded Interconnects”, Journal of Applied Physics, 105, 033514, 2009.

50. H.L. Leong, C.L Gan, C.V. Thompson CV, K.L. Pey and H.Y. Li, “Electromigration-Induced Bond Improvement for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits,” Applied Physics Letters, 94, 081901, 2009.

51. Y. Ong, K. L. Pey, K. K. Ong, D. X. M. Tan, X. C. Wang, H. Y. Zheng, C. M. Ng and L. Chan “A Novel Low Cost Method of Forming Epitaxy SiGe on Si Substrate by Laser Annealing”, Applied Physics Letters, 94, 082104, 24 Feb 2009.

52. D.X.M. Tan, K.K Ong, K. L. Pey, X.C. Wang, G. Q. Lo, C. M. Ng, L. Chan and H.Y. Zheng, “Vacancy Generation by Laser Pre-irradiation for Junction Leakage Suppression, IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 30, issue 12, pp. 1263-1265, 2009.

53. XD. Wang, K.L. Pey, W.K. Choi, C.K.F. Ho, E. Fitzgerald, D. Antoniadis, “Arrayed Si/SiGe nanowire heterostructure formation via Au-catalyzed wet chemical etching method”, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 12(5), K37-K40, Mar 6, 2009.

54. ZR Wang, G. Zhang, K.L. Pey, C.H. Tung, and G.Q Lo, “Schottky-Ohmic Transition in Metal-all-around Electrical Contacts to Silicon Nanowires”, accepted by Journal of Applied Physics.

55. Y.K. Chin, K. L. Pey, N. Singh, G. Q. Lo, K. H. Tan, C. Y. Ong, L. H. Tan, “Dopant Segregated Schottky Silicon Nanowire (DSS SiNW) MOSFETs with Gate-All-Around Channels”, Accepted by IEEE EDL.

56. GJ Zhu, X Zhou, TS Lee, LK Ang, GH See, SH Lin, YK Chin, and K.L. Pey, “A Compact Model for Undoped Silicon-Nanowire MOSFETs with Schottky-Barrier Source/Drain”, accepted by IEEE TED.

57. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey and X. Li, “Detection of high-κ and interfacial layer breakdown using the tunneling mechanism in a dual layer dielectric stack”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, 222903, (2009).

58. VL Lo, KL Pey and CH Tung, “Schottky-like Behavior of Progressive Breakdown of Poly-Si/SiON Gate Dielectric Stack”, Applied Physics Letters, 92, pg. 012910, 3 January 2008.

59. J. Tan, K. L. Pey, D. Z. Chi, P. S. Lee and Y. Setiawan and K. M. Hoe, “Materials and Electrical Characterization of Er(Si1-xGex)2-y Films formed on Si1-xGex (001) (x = 0 – 0.3) via Rapid Thermal Annealing”, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 155(1), pp. H26-H30, 2008.

60. Y.C. Ong, D.S. Ang, K.L. Pey, Z.R. Wang, S.J. O’Shea, C.H. Tung, T. Kawanago, K. Kakushima, and H. Iwai, “Electronic trap characterization of the Sc2O3/La2O3 high- gate stack by scanning tunneling microscopy”, Applied Physics Letters, 92, pg. 022904, 15 January 2008.

61. Y. Zheng, Andrew T.S. Wee, Y.C. Ong, K.L. Pey, C. Troadec, S.J. O’Shea, and N. Chandrasekhar, “Localized breakdown in dielectrics and macroscopic charge transport through the whole gate stack: A comparative study”, Applied Physics Letters, 92, 012914, 14 Jan 2008.

62. E.J. Tan, K.L. Pey, Navab Singh , Dong Zhi Chi, Guo-Qiang Lo, Pooi See Lee, Keat Mun Hoe, Yoke King Chin, and Guang Da Cu, “Erbium silicided Schottky Source/Drain Silicon Nanowire N-Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors” Japan Journal Applied Physics, Vol. 47, No. 4, 2008, pp. 3277–3281. (published on line April 25, 2008).

63. J. Tan, K. L. Pey, N. Singh, G. Q. Lo, D. Z. Chi, Y. K. Chin, L. J. Tang, P. S. Lee and C. K. F. Ho, “Nickel-silicided Schottky Junction CMOS Transistors with Gate-All-Around Nanowire Channels”, IEEE Electron Devices Letters, Vol 29, No. 8, pp. 902-905, August 2008.

64. D. S. Ang, Y. C. Ong, S. J. O’Shea, K. L. Pey, C. H. Tung, T. Kawanago, K. Kakushima and H. Iwai, “Polarity Dependent Breakdown of the High-k/SiOx Gate Stack: A Phenomenological Explanation by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy”, Applied Physics Letters, 92, 192904, 15 May 2008.

65. D.X.M. Tan, K.L. Pey, K.K. Ong, B. Colombeau, C.M. Ng, S.H. Yeong, A.T.S. Wee, C.J. Liu and X.C. Wang, “Vacancy Engineering by Optimized Laser Irradiation in Boron-Implanted, Pre-amorphized Silicon Substrate”, Applied Physics Letters, 92, 203107, 21 May 2008.

66. S. H. Yeong, B. Colombeau, C. H. Poon, K. R. C. Mok, A. See, F. Benistant, M. P. Srinivasan, X. M. Tan, K. L. Pey, C. M. Ng and L. Chan, “Understanding of Boron Junction Stability in Preamorphized Silicon after Optimized Flash Annealing,” Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 155, H508 (2008).

67. N Ranganathan, K Prasad, N Balasubramanian and KL Pey,“A study of thermo-mechanical stress and its impact on through-silicon vias”, Journal of Micromech. Microeng., 18, pg. 075018, 9 Jun 2008.

68. C. Y. Ong, K. L. Pey, X. Li, X. C. Wang, C. M. Ng and L. Chan, “Laser Annealing induced high Ge concentration epitaxial SiGe layer in Si1-xGex virtual substrate”, Applied Physics Letters, 93, 041112, 30 July 2008.

69. Gang Zhang, Xiang Li, Chih-Hang Tung, KL Pey and Guo-Qiang Lo, “A nanoscale analysis of the leakage current in SiO2 breakdown”, Applied Physics Letters, 93, 022901, 14 July 2008.

70. KH Tan, DZ Chi and KL Pey, “Optical and electrical characterization of sputter-deposited FeSi2 and its evolution with annealing temperature”, Journal of Applied Physics, 104, 064117, 25 Sep 2008.

71. YC Ong, DS Ang, SJ O’Shea, KL Pey, SJ Wang, CH Tung and X Li, “Scanning tunneling microscopy study of nitrogen incorporated HfO2”, Journal of applied Physics, 104, pg. 064119, 2008.

72. N Ranganathan, D Y Lee, L Ebin, N Balasubramanian, K Prasad and K L Pey, “The development of a tapered silicon micro-micromachining process for 3D microsystems packaging”, Journal of Micromech. Microeng., Vol. 18, pg. 115028, 15 Oct 2008.

73. X. Li, C.H. Tung and K.L. Pey, “The Nature of Dielectric Breakdown” 93, Applied Physics Letters, 072903, 2008.

74. E. Miranda, K. L. Pey, R. Ranjan and C. H. Tung, “Equivalent circuit model for the gate leakage current in broken down HfO2/TaN/TiN gate stacks”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 29, No. 12, December 2008.

75. Y. Setiawan, P.S. Lee, S. Balakumar, K.L. Pey, and X.C. Wang, “Laser-induced melt-mediated Ni(Pt) germanosilicide formation on condensed Si1-xGex/Si substrates”, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, vol. 11(9), June 2008.

76. E. J. Tan, K. L. Pey, N. Singh, G. Q. Lo, D. Z. Chi, Y. K. Chin, L. J. Tang, P. S. Lee and C. K. F. Ho, “Demonstration of Schottky Barrier nMOS Transistors with erbium silicided source/drain and silicon nanowire channel”, IEEE Electron Devices Letters, Vol 29, No. 10, pp. 1167-1170, October 2008.

77. D. S. Ang, Y. C. Ong, S. J. O’Shea, K. L. Pey, T. Kawanago, K. Kakushima, H. Iwai, and C. H. Tung, “Study of trap generation in the Sc2O3/La2O3/SiOx gate dielectric stack by scanning tunneling microscopy, Applied Physics Letters, 93, pg. 242904, 2008.

78. X. Li, C.H. Tung and K.L. Pey, “The radial distribution of defects in a percolation” Applied Physics Letters, 93, 262902, 2008.

79. K. L. Pey, C. H. Tung, R. Ranjan, V.L. Lo, M. MacKenzie, and A. J. Craven, “Nano-characterization of Dielectric Breakdown in the Various Advanced Gate Stack MOSFETs”, Int. J. Nanotechnology, , Vol. 4, No. 4, p. 347 2007.

80. W. Chandra, L. K. Ang, K. L. Pey and C. M. Ng, “Two dimensional analytical Mott-Gurney law for a trap-filled solid”, Applied Physics Letters, 90, 153505, 2007.

81. C.W. Chang, C.V. Thompson, C.L. Gan, K.L. Pey, W.K. Choi, and Y. K. Lim, “Effects of Micro-Voids on the Line-Width Dependence of Electromigration Failure of Dual-Damascene Copper Interconnects”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90, No. 19, No. 193505, 2007.

82. Y. Setiawan, P.S. Lee, K.L. Pey, X.C. Wang, G. C. Lim and F.L. Chow, “Nickel Silicide Formation using Multiple-Pulsed Laser Annealing”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 101(3), 034307, Feb 2007. Also, has been selected for the February 19, 2007 issue 7 of Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology.

83. Yi Zheng, Andrew T. S. Wee, K. L. Pey, Cedric Troadec, S. J. O’Shea, and N. Chandrasekhar, “Hot electron transport in Au-HfO2-SiO2-Si structures studied by ballistic electron emission spectroscopy”, Applied Physics Letters 90, pg. 142915, 2007.

84. Y. Setiawan, P. S. Lee, K. L. Pey, X. C. Wang and G. C. Lim and B. L. Tan, “Laser-induced Ni(Pt) germanosilicide formation through a self-limiting melting phenomenon on Si1-xGex/Si heterostructure”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90, pg. 073108, Feb 2007.

85. Y.C. Ong, D. S. Ang, K. L. Pey, S. J. O’Shea, K. E. J. Goh, C. Troadec, C. H. Tung, T. Kawanago, K. Kakushima and H. Iwai, “Bi-layer gate dielectric study by scanning tunneling microscopy”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, pg. 102905, 2007.

86. H.L. Leong, C.L Gan, C.V. Thompson CV, K.L. Pey and H.Y. Li, “Application of contact theory to metal-metal bonding of silicon wafers,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 102 (10), pg. 103510, 2007.

87. E. Miranda, K. L. Pey, R. Ranjan and C. H. Tung, “Post-breakdown conduction in ultra-thin HfO2 films in MOS devices”, Electron Letters, 13th September 2007, Vol. 43, No. 19, pp. 1050 – 1051.

88. P. Yu, K. L. Pey, W. K. Choi, M. K. Dawood, H.G. Chew, D. A. Antoniadis, E. A. Fitzgerald, and D. Z. Chi, “Effect of yttrium interlayer on Ni germanided metal gate workfunction in SiO2/HfO2”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1098-1011, Dec 2007.

89. E. Miranda, K. L. Pey, R. Ranjan, C. H. Tung, “Analysis of the post-breakdown current in HfO2/TaN/TiN gate stack MOSFETs for low applied biases”, Microelectronic Engineering, 84, pp. 1960–1963, 2007.

90. Y. Setiawan, P.S. Lee, C.W. Tan, and K.L. Pey, ”Effect of Ti alloying in nickel silicide formation”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 504(1-2), pp. 153-156, May 10 2006.

91. E.J. Tan, M. L. Kon, K. L. Pey, P.S. Lee, Y. W. Zhang, W. D. Wang, and D. Z. Chi, “Effects of Si(001) surface amorphization on ErSi2 thin film”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 504, pp. 157-160, May 10 2006.

92. L. J. Jin, K. L. Pey, W. K. Choi, D. A. Antoniadis, E. A. Fitzgerald and D. Z. Chi, “Electrical characterization of platinum and palladium effects in nickel monosilicide/n-Si Schottky contacts”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 504, pp. 149-152, May 10 2006.

93. K.L. Pey, C. H. Tung and L. Tang, “Characterization of microstructural and oxide damage of breakdown spot in mosfets using nano analytical techniques,“ ECS Transactions Volume 1, Issue 1, 2005, Pages 191-206.

94. Condorelli, S. Lombardo, F. Palumbo, K.L. Pey, C.H. Tung and L.J. Tang, “Structure and conductance of the breakdown spot during the early stages of progressive breakdown”, IEEE Transaction on Device and Materials Reliability, Vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 534-541, 2006.

95. R. Ranjan, K.L. Pey, C.H. Tung, D.S. Ang, L.J. Tang, T. Kauerauf, R. Degraeve, G. Groeseneken, S. De Gendt and L.K. Bera, “Ultrafast progressive breakdown associated with metal-like filament formation of breakdown path in HfO2/TaN/TiN transistor”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, pg. 122907, 2006. Also selected for the April 2006 issue of Virtual Journal of Ultrafast Science, USA.

96. E.J. Tan, Mathieu Bouville, Dong Zhi Chi, KL Pey, PS Lee, David J. Srolovitz, and Chih Hang Tung, “Pyramidal structural defects in erbium silicide thin films”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, pg. 021908, 2006.

97. E.J. Tan, K.L. Pey, D.Z. Chi, P.S. Lee, and L.J. Tang, “Improved electrical performance of erbium silicide Schottky diodes formed by pre-RTA amorphization of Si”, IEEE Electronic Device Letters, Vol. 27, no. 2, Feb 2006, pp. 93-95.

98. C.W. Chang, Z.-S.Choi, C.V. Thompson, C.L. Gan, K.L. Pey, W.K. Choi, N. Hwang, “Electromigration Immortality as a Function of Stress Configuration in a Simple Dual-Damascene Cu Interconnect Tree”, Journal of Applied Physics, 99, pg. 094505, 2006.

99. P.S. Lee, K.L. Pey, F.L. Chow, L.J. Tang, C. H. Tung, X.C. Wang and G.C. Lim, “Multiple-pulsed laser thermal annealing for the formation of silicided junction”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 27 (4), pp. 237-239, Apr 2006. Hwang N, Tan TL, Cheng CK, Du AY, Gan CL, Pey KL, “Investigation of intrinsic dielectric breakdown mechanism in Cu/low-kappa interconnect system”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 27 (4), pp. 234-236, Apr 2006.

100. F. L. Chow, P. S. Lee, K. L. Pey, L.J. Tang, C. H. Tung, X. C. Wang and G. C. Lim, “Pulsed laser induced silicidation on TiN-capped Co/Si Bilayers”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 99, pg. 044902, 2006.

101. V. L. Lo, K. L. Pey, C. H. Tung and D. S. Ang, T.S. Foo, L.J, Tang, “Percolation resistance evolution during progressive breakdown in narrow MOSFETs,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, 27(5), May, 396-398, 2006.

102. Setiawan Y, Lee PS, Pey KL, Wang XC, Lim GC, “Laser-induced Ni(Ti) silicide formation”, App. Phys. Letts., Vol. 88 (11), pg. 113108, Mar 13 2006.

103. K.K. Ong, K.L. Pey, P.S. Lee, A.T.S. Wee, X.C. Wang, Y.F. Chong, L.H. Wong and C.C. Wong, “Enhanced dopant activation in strained-Si/Si1-XGeX substrate using non-melt laser annealing”, ECS Trans. 1, (30) 1 (2006).

104. K. K. Ong, K. L. Pey, P. S. Lee, A. T. S. Wee, X. C. Wang, and Y. F. Chong, “Dopant activation in subamorphized silicon upon laser annealing”, Applied Physics Letters, 89, pg. 082101, 2006.

105. K. K. Ong, K. L. Pey, P. S. Lee, A. T. S. Wee, X. C. Wang and Y. F. Chong, “Role of low temperature rapid thermal annealing in post laser annealed PMOSFET”, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 89, pg. 122113, 2006.

106. V.L. Lo, K.L. Pey, W.T. Lim, D.S. Ang, C.H. Tung, “Study of dopant redistribution at the substrate-source/drain P-N junction of nano-scale MOSFET during progressive breakdown”, IEEE TED, Vol. 52(11), pp. 2786-2791, 2006.

107. K. K. Ong, K. L. Pey, P. S. Lee, A. T. S. Wee, X. C. Wang, Y. F. Chong, L. H. Wong, and C. C. Wong, “Dopant distribution during recrystallization transient at the maximum melt depth induced by laser annealing”, Appl. Phys. Letts. 89, 172111, 2006.

108. C.H. Tung, K.L. Pey, R. Ranjan, L.J. Tang, D.S. Ang, “Nano-Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor Contact and Gate Silicide Instability during Gate Dielectric Breakdown”, Appl. Phys. Letts., vol. 89(22), pp. 221902-1-221902-3, 2006. Also, has been selected for the December 11, 2006 issue of Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology.

109. H.P. Yu, K.L. Pey, W.K. Choi, D.A. Antoniadis, E.A. Fitzgerald, D.Z. Chi, and C.H. Tung, “Workfunction tunning of n-channel metal-oxide field-effect transistors using interfacial yttrium layer in fully silicided nickel gate”, Appl. Phys. Letts., vol. 89(23), pg. 233520, 2006.

2005 – 2001

110. P. S. Lee, K. L. Pey, D. Mangelinck, D. Z. Chi, T. Osipowicz, “On the morphological changes of Ni- and Ni(Pt)-silicides”, Journal of Electrochem. Soc. 152 (4) G305-G308, 2005.

111. T A/L Selvarajoo, R Ranjan, K L Pey, L J Tang, C H Tung and W H Lin, “Dielectric-Breakdown-Induced Epitaxy: A Universal Breakdown Defect In Ultrathin Gate Dielectrics”, IEEE Trans. On Device and Materials Reliability, Vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 190-197, 2005.

112. C.H. Tung, K.L. Pey, L.J. Tang, Y. Cao, M.K Radhakrishnan and W.H. Lin, “Fundamental Narrow MOSFET Gate Dielectric Breakdown Behaviors and Their Impacts on Device Performance”, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 52, No. 4, Apr 2005, pp. 473-483.

113. S. Lombardo, J. H. Stathis, B. P. Linder, K.L. Pey, F. Palumbo, C. H. Tung, “Dielectric breakdown mechanisms in gate oxides”, Invited APPLIED PHYSICS REVIEWS on Journal of Applied Physics (2005), vol. 98, pg. 121301-1, 2005. Also selected for the January 16, 2006 issue of Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology.

114. L. J. Jin, K. L. Pey, W. K. Choi, E. A. Fitzgerald, D. A. Antoniadis, A.J. Pitera, M.L. Lee and C. H. Tung, “Highly oriented Ni(Pd)SiGe formation at 400 ºC”, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 97, 104917, 2005.

115. K.L. Pey, R. Ranjan, C.H. Tung, L.J. Tang, V.L. Lo, K.S. Lim, T. A/L Selvarajoo and D.S. Ang, “Breakdowns in high-k gate stacks of nano-scale CMOS devices”, Microelectronic Engineering, Elsevier, Vol. 80, pp. 353-361, 2005.

116. L.J. Tang, K.L. Pey, C.H. Tung, R. Ranjan, W. H. Lin, “Study of breakdown in ultrathin gate dielectrics using constant voltage stress and successive constant voltage stress”, Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 80, pp. 170-173, 2005.

117. R. Ranjan, K.L. Pey, C.H. Tung, L.J. Tang, B. Elattari, T. Kauerauf, G. Groeseneken, R. Degraeve, D.S. Ang, and L.K. Bera, “HfO2/Spacer-interface Breakdown in HfO2 High-K/Poly-Silicon Gate Stacks”, Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 80, pp. 370-373, 2005.

118. F. Palumbo, G. Condorelli, S. Lombardo, K. L. Pey, C. H. Tung, and L. J. Tang, “Structure of the oxide damage under progressive breakdown,” Microelectronic Reliability, vol 45, no. 5–6, pp. 845 – 848, May – June 2005.

119. L. J. Jin, K. L. Pey, W. K. Choi, E. A. Fitzgerald, D. A. Antoniadis, A.J. Pitera, M.L. Lee, D.Z. Chi, Md. A. Rahman and T. Osipowicz, “Effect of Pt on agglomeration and Ge out-diffusion in Ni(Pt) germanosilicide”, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 98, 0335220, 2005.

120. Rahman, T. Osipowicz, K. L. Pey, L. J. Jin, W. K. Choi, D. Z. Chi, D. A. Antoniadis, E. A. Fitzgerald, D.M. Isaacson, “Suppression of oxidation in nickel germanosilicides by Pt incorporation”, Applied Physics Letters, 87, 182116, 2005.

121. R. Ranjan, K.L. Pey, C.H. Tung, L.J. Tang, D.S. Ang, G. Groeseneken, S. De Gendt and L.K. Bera, “Breakdown induced thermo-chemical reactions in HfO2 high-/poly-silicon gate stacks”, Applied Physics Letters, 87, 242907, 2005.

122. D. Mangelinck, P.S. Lee, T. Osipowitcz, K.L. Pey, ”Analysis of laterally non-uniform layers and sub-micron devices by Rutherford backscattering”, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 215(3-4), pp. 495–500, 2004.

123. Y. F. Chong, H.-J. L. Gossmann, K. L. Pey, M. O. Thompson, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. Tung, “Reduction of Polysilicon Gate Depletion Effect in NMOS Devices Using Laser Thermal Processing,” Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 7(2), G25-27, 2004.

124. K. L. Pey, W. K. Choi, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Miron, E. A. Fitzgerald, D. A. Antoniadis and T. Ospowicz, “On the stability and composition of Ni-ermanosilicided Si1-xGex films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(2), 852-858, Mar/Apr 2004.

125. F. L. Chow , K. L. Pey, C. H. Tung, P. S. Lee, X. C. Wang, G. C. Lim and Y. F. Chong, “Formation of metastable silicide phase of Ti capped Co/Si film stacks after pulsed KrF laser annealing,” Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 7(10), pp. G213-G215, 2004.

126. C. S. Ho, K. L. Pey, C. H. Tung, B. C. Zhang and K.C. Tee, G. Karunasiri and S.J. Chua, “Uniform void-free epitaxial CoSi2 formation on shallow-trench-isolation bounded narrow Si (100) lines by template layer stress reduction”, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 7(11), pp. H49-H51, 2004.

127. Y. F. Chong, M. O. Thompson, S. Yang, H.-J. L. Gossmann and K. L. Pey, “Time-resolved reflectance studies of silicon during laser thermal processing of amorphous silicon gates on ultrathin gate oxides”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 95, no. 11, pp. 6048-6053, 2004.

128. L.J Tang, K.L. Pey, C.H. Tung, M.K Radhakrishnan and W.H. Lin, “Gate dielectric breakdown induced microstructural damage in MOSFETs”, IEEE Trans. on Device and Materials Reliability, 4, pg. 38-45, Mar. 2004.

129. Y. F. Chong, H.-J. L. Gossmann, K. L. Pey and M. O. Thompson, A.T.S. Wee, C.H. Tung, ”Laser Thermal Processing of Amorphous Silicon Gates to Reduce Poly-Depletion in CMOS Devices”, IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, Vol. 51(5), pp. 669-676, May 2004.

130. Y.S. Li, P.S. Lee and K.L. Pey, “Ti/Co and Co/Ti silicidation of poly-Si capped poly-Si0.7Ge0.3 substrate”, Thin Solid Films, 462-463, pp. 209-212, 2004.

131. N.G. Toledo, P.S. Lee and K.L. Pey, “Characterization of junction leakage of Ti-capped Co- and Ni-silicided junctions”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 462-463, pp. 202-208, 2004.

132. L.J. Jin, K.L. Pey, W.K. Choi, E.A. Fitzgerald, D.A. Antoniadis, D.Z. Chi and C.H. Tung, “The interfacial reaction of Ni on (111) Ge & (100) Si”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 462-463, pp. 151-155, 2004.

133. L.H. Wong, C.C. Wong, K.K. Ong, J.P. Liu, L. Chan, R. Rao, L. Liu, Z.X. Shen, K.L. Pey, “Thermal Stability of Strained Si/Si1-xGex Heterostructures for Advanced Microelectronics Devices”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 462-463, pp. 76-79, 2004.

134. K.L. Pey, P.S. Lee, D. Mangelinck, “Ni(Pt) alloy silicidation on (100) Si and poly-silicon lines”, Thin Solid Film, Vol. 462-463, pp. 137-145, 2004.

135. K. K. Ong, K. L. Pey, P. S. Lee, K. L. Yeo, A. T. S. Wee, Y. F. Chong, and X. C. Wang, “Formation of ultra-shallow p+/n junctions in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate using laser annealing”, Materials Science and Engineering B Materials Science & Engineering B 114-115C, 25 (2004).

136. DS Ang and KL Pey, “Evidence for two distinct positive trapped charge components in NBTI stressed P-MOSFETs employing ultra-thin CVD silicon nitride gate dielectric”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 25, No. 9, Sept 2004, pp. 637-639.

137. Y. F. Chong, H.-J. L. Gossmann, M. O. Thompson, K. L. Pey, A. T. S. Wee, S. Talwar, and L. Chan, “Reduction of Carrier Depletion in P+ Polysilicon Gates Using Laser Thermal Processing,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 362-362, May 2003.

138. W. H. Lin, K. L. Pey, Z. Dong, S. Y. M. Chooi, C. H. Ang, and J. Z. Zheng,” The Statistical Distribution of Percolation Current for Soft Breakdown in Ultrathin Gate Oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 336-338, May 2003.

139. C.L. Gan, C.V. Thompson, K.L. Pey, and W.K. Choi, “Experimental Characterization and Modeling of the Reliability of 3-Terminal Dual-Damascene Cu Interconnect Trees”, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 1222-1228, 15 July 2003.

140. P. S. Lee, K.L. Pey, D. Mangelinck, J. Ding and L. Chan, “In-situ XRD analysis of Ni(Pt)/Si(100) reactions in low temperature regime ≤ 400 ˚C”, Solid State Communications, Vol. 128/9-10, pp 325-328, 2003.

141. C. H. Tung, K.L. Pey, M. K. Radhakrishnan, L.J. Tang, W.H. Lin, F. Palumbo and S. Lombardo, “Percolation path and dielectric-breakdown-induced-epitaxy (DBIE) evolution during ultrathin gate dielectric breakdown transient”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 83 no. 11, pp. 2223-2225, 2003.

142. K.L. Pey, C.H. Tung, M.K. Radhakrishnan, L.J. Tang, Y. Sun, X.D. Wang and W.H. Lin, “Correlation of failure mechanism of constant-current-stress and constant-voltage-stress breakdowns in ultrathin gate oxides of nMOSFETs by TEM”, Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 43, Issues 9-11, September-November 2003, pp. 1471-1476.

143. K.L. Pey, C.H. Tung, L.J. Tang, W.H. Lin, M.K. Radhakrishnan, “Size difference in dielectric-breakdown-induced epitaxy in narrow n- and p-metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 83 no. 14, pp. 2940-2942, 2003.

144. W. H. Lin, K. L. Pey, Z. Dong, S. Y. M. Chooi, M. S. Zhou, T. C. Ang, C. H. Ang, W. S. Lau, and J. H. Ye “Effects of post-deposition anneal on the electrical properties of Si3N4 gate dielectric,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 23 (3), pp. 124-126, March 2002.

145. P. S. Lee, D. Mangelinck, K. L. Pey, J. Ding, T. Osipowicz and L. Chan, “Enhanced stability of Ni monosilicide on MOSFETs poly-Si gate stack,” Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 60, pp. 171-181, 2002.

146. P. S. Lee, K. L. Pey, D. Mangelinck, J. Ding, T. Osipowicz and A. See, “Layer inversion of Ni(Pt)Si on mixed phase Si films,” Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, vol. 5 (3), pp. G15-G17, 2002.

147. W. H. Lin, K. L. Pey, Z. Dong, V. S. K. Lim, S. Y. M. Chooi, M. S. Zhou, T. C. Ang and W. S. Lau, “Impacts of buffer oxide in nitride/oxide stack gate dielectrics on the device performance and dielectric reliability,” Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, vol. 5(4), pp. F7-F9, 2002.

148. W. L. Tan, K. L. Pey, S. Chooi, J. H. Ye and T. Ospowciz, “Effect of a titanium cap in reducing interfacial oxides in the formation of nickel silicide,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 91, no. 6 (5), pp. 2901-2909, March 2002.

149. M. K. Radhakrishnan, K. L. Pey, C. H. Tung and W. H. Lin, “Physical analysis of hard and soft breakdown failures in ultrathin gate dioxide,” Microelectronic Reliability, vol. 42, pp. 565-571, 2002.

150. P. S. Lee, K. L. Pey, D. Mangelinck, J. Ding, D. Z. Chi, J. Y. Dai and L. Chan, “Phase and layer stability of Ni- and Ni(Pt)-silicides on narrow poly-Si lines,” Journal of Electrochemical Society, vol. 149 (6), G331-G335, 2002.

151. B. Zhao, K. L. Pey, W. K. Choi, S. Chattopadhyay, E. A. Fitzgerald, D. A. Antoniadis and P. S. Lee, “Interfacial reactions of Ni on Si1-xGex (x = 0.2, 0.3) at low temperature by rapid thermal annealing,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 214-217, 1 July 2002.

152. Y. F. Chong, K. L. Pey, A. T. S. Wee, T. Osipowicz, A. See and L. Chan, “Control of transient enhanced diffusion of boron after laser thermal processing of preamorphized silicon,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 1344-1350, 1 August 2002.

153. P. S. Lee, K. L. Pey, D. Mangelinck, J. Ding, D. Z. Chi, T. Osipowicz, J. Y. Dai and L. Chan, “Effect of ion implantation on layer inversion of Ni silicided poly-Si,” Journal of Electrochemical Society, vol. 149 (9), G505-G509, 2002.

154. C. H. Tung, K. L. Pey, W. H. Lin and M. K. Radhakrishnan, “Polarity dependent dielectric-breakdown-induced-epitaxy (DBIE) in Si MOSFETs,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 526-528, September 2002.

155. L. Pey, W. K. Choi, S. Chattopadhyay, H. B. Zhao, E. A. Fitzgerald, D. A. Antoniadis and P. S. Lee, “Thermal reaction of nickel and Si0.75Ge0.25 alloy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A., vol. 20(6), 1903-1910, Nov/Dec 2002.

156. Y. F. Chong, K. L. Pey, A. T. S. Wee, M. O. Thompson, C. H. Tung and A. See, “Laser-induced amorphization of silicon during pulsed laser irradiation of TiN/Ti/polycrystalline silicon/SiO2/silicon,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 81, no. 20, pp. 3786-3788, Nov. 2002.

157. W. K. Choi, K. L. Pey, H. B. Zhao, T. Osipowicz and Z. X. Shen, “Nickel silicidation on polycrystalline silicon germanium films,” International Journal of Modern Physics B, vol. 16, issues 28-29, 4323-4326, 2002.

158. DZ Chi, D Mangelinck, SK Lahiri, PS Lee and KL Pey, “A comparative study of current-voltage characteristics of Ni and Ni(Pt)- alloy silicided p+/n diodes”, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 78, no. 21, 2001, pp. 3256-3258.

159. YF Chong, KL Pey, YF Lu, ATS Wee and A See, “Study of the morphological modifications induced by laser annealing of preamorphized silicon”, Surface Review & Letters, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 441-445, 2001.

160. CS Tan, WK Choi, LK Bera, KL Pey, DA Antoniadis, EA Fitzgerald, MT Currie, and CK Maiti “N2O Rapid Thermal Oxidation of Strained Si/Relaxed SiGe Heterostructure grown by UHVCVD”, Solid State Electronics, 45, pp. 1945-1949, 2001.

161. YF Chong, KL Pey, ATS Wee, A See, ZX Shen, CH Tung, R Gopalakrishnan and YF Lu, “Laser-induced titanium disilicide formation for sub-micron technologies”, J. Electronic Materials, vol. 30, no.12, pp. 1549-1553, 2001.

162. LW Chu, WK Chim, KL Pey, and JYK Yeo, “Combined low frequency noise and resistance measurements for void extraction in deep submicrometer interconnects”, J. Electronic Materials, vol. 30, pp. 1513-1519, 2001.

163. PS Lee, D Mangelinck, K L Pey, J Ding, J Dai and A See, “Ni silicide formation on Si(100) and poly-Si with a presilicide N2+ implantation”, J. Electronic Materials, vol. 30, no.12, pp. 1554-1559, 2001.

164. PS Lee, KL Pey, D Mangelinck, J Ding, DZ Chi and L Chan, “New salicidation technology with Ni(Pt) alloy for MOSFETs”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 568-561, 2001.

165. HN Chua, KL Pey, WH Lai, JW Chai, JS Pan and SY Siah, “X-ray photoemission spectroscopy study of silicidation of Ti on BF2+-implanted polysilicon”, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19(6), pp. 2252-2257, 2001.

166. CL Gan, CV Thompson, KL Pey, WK Choi, HL Tay, B Yu and MK Radhakrishnan, “Effect of current direction on the lifetime of different levels of Cu dual-damascene metallization”, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 79, no. 27, pp. 4592-4599, 2001.

2000 – 1996

167. WK Choi, JH Chen, LK Bera, W Feng, KL Pey, J Mi, CY Yang, A Raman, SJ Chua, JS Pan, ATS Wee and R Liu, “Structural characterization of rapid thermal oxidized Si1-x-yGexCy alloy films grown by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition”, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 192-197, 2000.

168. WK Choi, LK Bera, JH Chen, W Feng, KL Pey, Hams Yoong, J Mi, F Zhang and CY Yang, “Structural characterization of rapid thermal oxidized silicon-germanium-carbon films”, Materials Science and Engineering B, B56, pp. 184-186, 2000.

169. PS Lee, D Mangelinck, KL Pey, ZX Shen, J Ding, T Osipowicz, A See, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy investigation of nickel silicides and nickel(platinum) silicides”, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, Vol. 3, pp. 153-155, 2000.

170. DZ Chi, D Mangelinck, JY Dai, SK Lahiri, KL Pey and CS Ho, “Defects in n-type silicon induced by rapid thermal annealing nickel-platinum alloy mono-silicidation” Applied Physics Letters 76: (23), pp. 3385-3387, 2000.

171. YF Chong, KL Pey, ATS Wee, A See, L Chan and LH Chua, “Annealing of ultrashallow p+/n junctions by 248 nm excimer laser and rapid thermal processing with different preamorphization depths”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 76, No. 22, pp. 3197-3199, 2000.

172. YF Chong, KL Pey, Y F Lu, ATS Wee, T Osipowicz, HL Seng, A See, and JY Dai, “Liquid-phase Epitaxial Growth of Amorphous Silicon During Laser Annealing of Ultrashallow P+/n junctions”, Applied Physics Letters, 77, pp. 2994-2996, 2000.

173. HN Chua, KL Pey, WH Lai and SY Siah, “Formation of voids in Ti-salicided BF2+-doped sub-micron polysilicon lines”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 87, No. 12, 8401-8406, 15 June 2000.

174. KL Pey, R Sundaresan, H Wong, SY Siah and CH Tung, “Void formation in titanium desilicide/p+ silicon interface: impact on junction leakage and silicide resistivity”, Materials Science and Engineering B, B74, Nos. 1-3, pp. 289-295, 2000.
175. PS Lee, D Mangelinck, KL Pey, J Ding, CS Ho, A See, “On the Ni-Si phase transformation with/without native oxide”, Microelectronic Engineering, 51-52, pp. 583-594, 2000.

176. CL Gan, KL Pey, WK Chim and SY Siah, “Effects of high current conduction in sub-micron T-silicided films”, Solid-State Electronics, 44, pp. 1837-1845, 2000.

177. KL Pey, HN Chua, SY Siah, “Effect of BF2+-implantation on void formation in Ti-salicided narrow polysilicon lines,” Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 3(9), pp. 442-445, 2000.

178. PS Lee, KL Pey, D Mangelinck, J Ding, ATS Wee and L Chan, “Improved NiSi salicide process using presilicide N2+ implant for MOSFETs”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 566-568, 2000.

179. CW Lim, AJ Bourdillon, H Gong, SK Lahiri, KL Pey and KH Lee, “A study on the effect of incorporating nitrogen ions on titanium disilicide thin film formation for ULSI applications”, J. of Materials Science Letter, vol. 18, pp. 743-746, 1999.

180. EG Lim, G Karunasiri, SJ Chua, ZX Shen, H Wong, KL Pey, KH Lee and L Chan, “Characterization of titanium silicide by Raman spectroscopy for sub-micron IC processing”, Microelectronic Engineering, 43-44, pp.611-617, 1998.

181. CS Ho, KL Pey, H Wong, RPG Karunasiri, SJ Chua, KH Lee and LH Chan, “Integration of SALICIDE process for deep-submicron CMOS technology: effect of nitrogen/argon-amorphized implant on SALICIDE formation” Materials Science and Engineering B, B51, pp. 274-279, 1998.

182. EG Lim, G Karunasiri, SJ Chua, H Wong, KL Pey and KH Lee, “Monitoring of TiSi2 formation on narrow polycrystalline silicon lines using Raman spectroscopy”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 171-173, 1998.

183. TH Chieng, LM Gan, CH Chew, SC Ng and KL Pey, “Formation of microporous polymeric materials by microemulsion polymerization of methylmethacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate”, J. Appl. Polym. Scie., vol. 60, pp. 1561-1568, 1996.

184. TH Chieng, LM Gan, CH Chew, SC Ng and KL Pey, “Microstructural control of polymeric materials via a microemulsion pathway using mixed non-polymerizable and polymerizable anionic surfactant”, Langmuir, Vol. 12, 1996, pp. 319-324.

185. TH Chieng, LM Gan, CH Chew, SC Ng and KL Pey, “Microporous polymeric materials by polymerization of microemulsion containing different alkyl chain lengths of cationic surfactant”, Polymer, vol. 37, no. 13, pp. 2801-2809, 1996.

186. TH Chieng, LM Gan, CH Chew, SC Ng and KL Pey, “Microporous polymeric materials by microemulsion polymerization: Effect of the mixed ratio of long and short alkyl chain length of N-alkyltrimethylammonium bromides”, Polymer, vol. 37, no. 21, pp. 4823 – 4831, 1996.

187. TH Chieng, LM Gan, WK Teo and KL Pey, “Porous polymeric membranes by microemulsion polymerization: Effect of anionic and cationic surfactants”, Polymer, vol. 37, no. 26, pp. 5917-5925, 1996.

1995 – 1992

188. KL Pey, WK Chim, LS Koh, YY Liu and SYC Chew, “An application of spectroscopic emission microscopy and cathodoluminescence to the failure analysis of near-infrared light emitting diodes”, Microelectronics and Reliability, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 935-946, 1995.

189. KL Pey, DSH Chan and JCH Phang, “Cathodoluminescence contrast of localized defects Part I. Numerical model for simulation,” Scanning Microscopy, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 355-366, 1995.

190. KL Pey, DSH Chan and JCH Phang, “Cathodoluminescence contrast of localized defects Part II. Defect investigation,” Scanning Microscopy, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 367-380, 1995.

191. KL Pey, JCH Phang, DSH Chan and YK Leong, “Design and characterization of a single reflection solid state detector with high discrimination against backscattered electron for cathodoluminescence microscopy,” Scanning, vol. 18, pp. 35-44, 1995.

192. TH Chieng, LM Gan, CH Chew, L Lee, SC Ng, KL Pey and D. Grant, “Microporous polymeric materials by microemulsion polymerization: Effect of surfactant concentration”, Langmuir, vol. 11, pp. 3321-3326, 1995.

193. KL Pey, WK Chim, JCH Phang and DSH Chan, “Optoelectronic material analysis and device failure analysis using SEM cathodoluminescence,” Microelectronics and Reliability, vol. 34, no. 7, 1994, pp. 1193-1202.

194. DSH Chan, KL Pey and JCH Phang, “Semiconductor parameters extraction using cathodoluminescence in the scanning electron microscope,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 40, no. 8, 1993, pp. 1417-1425.

195. KL Pey, JCH Phang and DSH Chan, “Investigation of dislocations in GaAs using cathodoluminescence in the scanning electron microscope,” Scanning Microscopy, vol. 7, no. 4, 1993, pp. 1195-1206.

196. JCH Phang, KL Pey and DSH Chan, “A simulation model for cathodoluminescence in the scanning electron microscope,” IEEE Transactions Electron Devices, Vol. 39, no. 4, 1992, pp. 782-791.

197. WK Chim, DSH Chan, TS Low, JCH Phang, KS Sim and KL Pey, “Modeling techniques for the quantification of some electron beam induced phenomena,” Scanning Microscopy, Vol. 6, no. 4, 1992, pp.961-97

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