**NANOELECTRONIC DEVICE RELIABILITY**

- S. Mei,
**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman, D. Linten, G. Groeseneken, N. Horiguchi and K.L. Pey, “New Understanding of Dielectric Breakdown in Advanced FinFET Devices – Physical, Electrical, Statistical and Multiphysics Study”,*IEEE International Electron Device Meeting (IEDM),*pp. 1-4, (2016). **N. Raghavan**, “Application of the defect clustering model for forming, SET and RESET statistics in RRAM devices”,*27*, Vol. 64, pp. 54-58, (2016).^{th}European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability- A. Ranjan,
**N. Raghavan**, J. Molina, S.J. O’Shea, K. Shubhakar and K.L. Pey, “Analysis of quantum conductance, read disturb and switching statistics in HfO_{2}RRAM using conductive AFM”,*27*, Vol. 64, pp. 172-178, (2016).^{th}European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability - K. Shubhakar, S. Mei, M. Bosman,
**N. Raghavan**, A. Ranjan, S.J. O’Shea and K.L. Pey, “Conductive filament formation at grain boundary locations in polycrystalline HfO_{2}-based MIM stacks – Computational and physical insight”,*27*, Vol. 64, pp.204-209, (2016).^{th}European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability - K.L. Pey, A. Ranjan, R. Thamankar, K. Shubhakar,
**N. Raghavan**and S.J. O’Shea, “Observation of resistive switching by physical analysis techniques”,*5*,^{th}International Symposium on Next-Generation Electronics (ISNE)__Invited__, pp. 1-2, (2016). - K.L. Pey, R. Thamankar, S. Mei, M. Bosman,
**N. Raghavan**and K. Shubhakar, “Understanding the switching mechanism in RRAM using in-situ TEM”,*IEEE Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop (SNW)*,__Invited__, pp. 1-2, (2016). - K.L. Pey, A. Ranjan, R. Thamankar, K. Shubhakar,
**N. Raghavan**and S.J. O’Shea, “Random telegraph noise study in HfO_{2}dielectric stacks using STM/CAFM: Analysis of local defects, degradation and breakdown”,*IEEE International Nanoelectronics Conference (INEC)*,__Invited__, pp. 1-2, (2016). - A. Ranjan,
**N. Raghavan**, K. Shubhakar, R. Thamankar, J. Molina, S.J. O’Shea, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “CAFM based spectroscopy of stress-induced defects in HfO_{2}with experimental evidence of the clustering model and metastable vacancy defect state”,*IEEE International**Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, pp. 7A-4, (2016). - S. Mei,
**N. Raghavan**, K. Shubhakar, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Multiphysics based 3D percolation framework model for multi-stage degradation and breakdown in high-κ – interfacial layer stacks”,*IEEE International**Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, pp. 7A-2, (2016). - R. Thamankar,
**N. Raghavan**, J. Molina, F.M. Puglisi, S.J. O’Shea, K. Shubhakar, L. Larcher, P. Pavan, A. Padovani and K.L. Pey, “Single vacancy defect spectroscopy on HfO_{2}using random telegraph noise signals from scanning tunneling microscopy”,*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 119, No. 8, 084304, (2016). - S. Mei, M. Bosman,
**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu and K.L. Pey, “Compliance current dominates evolution of NiSi_{2}defect size in Ni/dielectric/Si RRAM devices”,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 61, Issue 6, pp.71-77, (2016). **N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Probabilistic insight to possibility of new filament nucleation during repeated cycling of conducting bridge memory”,*26*, Vol. 55, Issue 9, pp. 1412-1416, (2015).^{th}European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability**N. Raghavan**, D.D. Frey, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Statistics of retention failure in the low resistance state for hafnium oxide RRAM using a Kinetic Monte Carlo approach”,*26*, Vol. 55, Issue 9, pp. 1422-1426, (2015).^{th}European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability- K. Shubhakar, M. Bosman, O. A. Neucheva, Y. C. Loke,
**N. Raghavan**, R. Thamankar, A. Ranjan, S. J. O’Shea, and K. L. Pey, “An SEM/STM based nanoprobing and TEM study of breakdown locations in HfO_{2}/SiO_{x}dielectric stacks for failure analysis”,*26*, Vol. 55, Issue 9, pp. 1450-1455, (2015).^{th}European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability - R. Degraeve, A. Fantini,
**N. Raghavan**, L. Goux, S. Clima, B. Govoreanu, A. Belmonte, D. Linten and M. Jurczak, “Causes and consequences of the stochastic aspect of filamentary RRAM”,*Microelectronic Engineering*, Vol. 147, pp. 171-175, (2015). - X. Wu, S. Mei, M. Bosman,
**N. Raghavan**, X.X. Zhang, D. Cha, K. Li and K.L. Pey, “Evolution of Filament Formation in Ni/HfO_{2}/SiO_{x}/Si‐Based RRAM Devices”,*Advanced Electronic Materials*, Issue 1, No. 11, (2015). **N. Raghavan**, W. H. Liu, R. Thamankar, M. Bosman and K. L. Pey, “Understanding defect kinetics in ultra-thin dielectric logic and memory devices using random telegraph noise analysis”,*22*^{nd}International IEEE Symposium*Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)*, pp. 149-153, (2015).- A. Ranjan, K. Shubhakar,
**N. Raghavan**, R. Thamankar, M. Bosman, S. J. O’Shea, and K. L. Pey. “Localized Random Telegraphic Noise Study in HfO_{2}dielectric stacks using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy — Analysis of process and stress-induced traps”,*22*^{nd}International IEEE Symposium*Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)*, pp. 458-462, (2015). **N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman, and K. L. Pey, “Spectroscopy of SILC trap locations and spatial correlation study of percolation path in the high-κ and interfacial layer”,*IEEE International**Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, pp. 5A-2, (2015).**N. Raghavan**, D. D. Frey, M. Bosman, and K. L. Pey, “Monte Carlo model of reset stochastics and failure rate estimation of read disturb mechanism in HfO_{x}RRAM”,*IEEE International**Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, pp. 5B-2, (2015).**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman, D.D. Frey and K.L. Pey, “Variability model for forming process in oxygen vacancy modulated high-κ based resistive switching memory devices”,*25*, Vol. 54, Issues 9-10, pp. 2266-2271, (2014).^{th}European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Assessment of read disturb immunity in conducting bridge memory devices – A thermodynamic perspective”,*25*–^{th}European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF)*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 54, Issues 9-10, pp. 2295-2299, (2014).**N. Raghavan**, “Performance and reliability trade-offs for high-κ RRAM”,*25*,^{th}European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF)**Invited Paper**,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 54, Issues 9-10, pp. 2253-2257, (2014).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, D.D. Frey and M. Bosman, “Impact of ionic drift and vacancy defect passivation on TDDB statistics and lifetime enhancement of metal gate high-κ stacks”,*52*^{nd}*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Waikoloa, Hawaii, 5B.4.1-5B.4.7, (2014).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, D.D. Frey and M. Bosman, “Stochastic failure model for endurance degradation in vacancy modulated HfO_{x}RRAM using the percolation cell framework”,*52*^{nd}*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Waikoloa, Hawaii, MY.9.1-MY.9.7, (2014).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey and K. Shubhakar, “High-κ dielectric breakdown in nanoscale logic devices – Scientific insight and technology impact”,*Microelectronics Reliability*,**Introductory Invited Paper**, Vol. 54, Issue 5, pp.847-860, (2014).- L. Goux,
**N. Raghavan**, A. Fantini, R. Nigon, S. Strangio, R. Degraeve, G.S. Kar, Y.Y. Chen, F. De Stefano, V.V. Afanas’ev and M. Jurczak, “On the bipolar resistive switching characteristics of Al_{2}O_{3}and HfO_{2}based memory cells operated in the soft-breakdown regime”,*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 116, 134502, (2014). - K. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey,
**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman, S.S. Kushvaha, Z.R. Wang and S.J. O’Shea, “Impact of local structural and electrical property of grain boundaries in polycrystalline HfO_{2}on reliability of SiO_{x}interfacial layer”,*25*–^{th}European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF)*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 54, Issues 9-10, pp. 1712-1717, (2014). - K.L. Pey, N. Raghavan, X. Wu and M. Bosman, “Filamentary switching with semiconducting bottom electrode – Physical insight and advantages”,
*International Electron Devices and Materials Symposium (IEDMS)*, Hualien, Taiwan,__Invited__, pp.1-3, (2014). - R. Degraeve, A. Fantini,
**N. Raghavan**, L. Goux, S. Clima, Y.Y. Chen, A. Belmonte, S. Cosemans, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, Ph. Roussel, G.S. Kar, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Hourglass concept for RRAM: a dynamic and statistical device model”,*21*, Singapore,^{st}IEEE International Symposium on the Physics and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)__Invited__, pp. 1-4, (2014). - W.H. Liu, A. Padovani, L. Larcher,
**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, “Analysis of correlated gate and drain random telegraph noise in post soft-breakdown TiN/HfLaO/SiO_{x}nMOSFETs”,*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp.157-159, (2014). - K. Shubhakar,
**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, “Nanoscopic study of HfO_{2}based high-κ dielectric stacks and its failure analysis”,*International Journal of Materials Science and Engineering*, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp.81-86, (2014). **N. Raghavan**, R. Degraeve, A. Fantini, L. Goux, D.J. Wouters, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Stochastic variability of vacancy filament configuration in ultra-thin dielectric RRAM and its impact on OFF-state reliability”,*IEEE International Electron Device Symposium (IEDM)*, Washington, USA, pp. 21.1.1-21.1.4, (2013).**N. Raghavan**, A. Padovani, X. Li, X. Wu, V.L. Lo, M. Bosman, L. Larcher and K.L. Pey, “Resilience of ultra-thin oxynitride films to percolative wear-out and reliability implications for high-κ stacks at low voltage stress”,*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 114, 094504, (2013).**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Feasibility of SILC recovery in sub-10Ǻ EOT advanced metal gate – high-κ stacks”,*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 34, No. 8, pp.1053-1055, (2013).- A. Padovani,
**N. Raghavan**, L. Larcher and K.L. Pey, “Identifying the first layer to fail in dual layer SiO_{x }/ HfSiON gate dielectric stacks”,*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 34, No. 10, pp.1289-1291, (2013). - Y.Y. Chen, M. Komura, R. Degraeve, B. Govoreanu, L. Goux, A. Fantini,
**N. Raghavan**, S. Clima, L. Zhang, A. Belmonte, A. Redolfi, G.S. Kar, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Improvement of data retention in HfO_{2}/ Hf 1T-1R RRAM cell under low operating current”,*IEEE International Electron Device Symposium (IEDM)*, Washington, USA, pp.10.1.1-10.1.4, (2013). - R. Degraeve, A. Fantini,
**N. Raghavan**, Y.Y. Chen, L. Goux, S. Clima, S. Cosemans, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, P.J. Roussel, G.S. Kar, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Modeling SET and RESET transients in Hf-based RRAM devices using the hourglass approach”,*44*, Arlington, Virginia, USA,^{th}IEEE Semiconductor Interface Specialists Conference (SISC)__Invited__, pp.1-2, (2013). - K.L. Pey, K. Shubhakar,
**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu and M. Bosman, “Impact of local variations in high-κ dielectric on breakdown and recovery characteristics of advanced gate stacks”,*IEEE International Conference of**Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (**EDSSC**),*__Invited__, pp.1-2, (2013). **N. Raghavan**, R. Degraeve, A. Fantini, L. Goux, D.J. Wouters, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Modeling the impact of reset depth on vacancy induced filament perturbations in HfO_{2}RRAM”,*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 34, No. 5, pp.614-616, (2013).**N. Raghavan**, R. Degraeve, L. Goux, A. Fantini, D.J. Wouters, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “RTN insight to filamentary instability and disturb immunity in ultra-low power switching HfO_{x}and AlO_{x}RRAM”,*IEEE VLSI Technology Symposium (VLSI)*, Kyoto, Japan, T163-T164, (2013).**N. Raghavan**, A. Padovani, X. Wu, K. Shubhakar, M. Bosman, L. Larcher and K.L. Pey, “The ‘buffering’ role of high-κ in post breakdown degradation immunity of advanced dual layer dielectric gate stacks”,*51*^{st}*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Monterey, California, pp.5A.3.1-5A.3.8, (2013).**N. Raghavan**, R. Degraeve, A. Fantini, L. Goux, S. Strangio, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Microscopic origin of random telegraph noise fluctuations in aggressively scaled RRAM and its impact on read disturb variability”,*51*^{st}*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Monterey, California, pp.5E.3.1-5E.3.7, (2013).**N. Raghavan**, A. Fantini, R. Degraeve, P.J. Roussel, L. Goux, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Statistical insight into controlled forming and forming-free stacks for HfO_{x}RRAM”,*18*^{th}International Symposium on Insulating Films on Semiconductors (*INFOS**)***,****Krakow, Poland,***Microelectronic Engineering*, Vol. 109, Issue 9, pp.177-181, (2013).- R. Degraeve, A. Fantini,
**N. Raghavan**, Y.Y. Chen, L. Goux, S. Clima, S. Cosemans, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, P.J. Roussel, G.S. Kar, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Modeling RRAM set/reset statistics resulting in guidelines for optimized operation”,*IEEE VLSI Technology Symposium (VLSI)*, Kyoto, Japan, T98-T99, (2013). **L. Goux, A. Fantini, R. Degraeve,****N. Raghavan****, R. Nigon, S. Strangio, G.S. Kar, D.J. Wouters, Y.Y. Chen, M. Komura, F. De Stefano, V.V. Afanas’ev and M. Jurczak, “Understanding of the intrinsic characteristics and memory trade-offs of sub-µA filamentary RRAM operation”,***IEEE VLSI Technology Symposium (VLSI)*, Kyoto, Japan, T162-T163, (2013).- K.L. Pey,
**N. Raghavan**, W.H. Liu, X. Wu, K. Shubhakar and M. Bosman, “Real-time analysis of ultra-thin gate dielectric breakdown and recovery – A reality”,*IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)*, Suzhou, China,__Invited__, pp.1-13, (2013). - A. Fantini, L. Goux, R. Degraeve, D.J. Wouters,
**N. Raghavan**, G.S. Kar, A. Belmonte, Y.Y. Chen, B. Govoreanu and M. Jurczak, “Intrinsic variability in HfO_{2}RRAM”,*5*^{th}IEEE International Memory Workshop (*IMW**)***, Monterey, California, pp.30-33, (2013).** - B. Govoreanu, A. Ajaykumar, H. Lipowicz, Y.Y. Chen, J.C. Liu, R. Degraeve, L. Zhang, S. Clima, L. Goux, I.P. Radu, A. Fantini,
**N. Raghavan**, G.S. Kar, W. Kim, A. Redolfi, D.J. Wouters, L. Altimime and M. Jurczak, “Performance and reliability of ultra-thin HfO_{2}-based RRAM (UTO-RRAM),*5*^{th}IEEE International Memory Workshop (*IMW**)***, Monterey, California, pp.48-51, (2013).** - S. Clima, R. Degraeve, K. Sankaran, Y.Y. Chen, A. Fantini, A. Belmonte, L. Zhang,
**N. Raghavan**, L.Goux, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, M. Jurczak and G. Pourtois, “Switching aspects of RRAM – First principles and model simulations insight”,*American Vacuum Society 60*,^{th}International Symposium and Exhibition – Electronic Materials and Processing (AVS)__Invited__, Long Beach, California, USA, (2013). - X. Wu, D. Cha, M. Bosman,
**N. Raghavan**, D.B. Migas, V.E. Borisenko, X.X. Zhang, K. Li and K.L. Pey, “Intrinsic nano-filamentation in resistance switching”,*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 113, 114503, (2013). - K. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey,
**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman, S.S. Kushvaha, Z.R. Wang and S.J. O’Shea, “Study of preferential localized degradation and breakdown of HfO_{2}/SiO_{x}dielectric stacks at grain boundary sites of polycrystalline HfO_{2}dielectrics”,*18*^{th}International Symposium on Insulating Films on Semiconductors (*INFOS**)***,****Krakow, Poland,***Microelectronic Engineering*, Vol. 109, Issue 9, pp.364-369, (2013). - A.L. Danilyuk, D.B. Migas, M.A. Danilyuk, V.E. Borisenko, X. Wu,
**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, “Multiphonon ionization of traps formed in hafnium oxide by electrical stress”,*Physica Status Solidi A*, Vol. 210, Issue 2, pp.361-366, (2013). **N. Raghavan**, X. Wu, W.H. Liu, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Physical Analysis and Insight into Filamentary Switching in Nickel Electrode based RRAM”,*3rd International Workshop on Simulation and Modeling of Memory Devices (IWSMM)*, Milan, Italy, (2012).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, X. Wu, W.H. Liu and M. Bosman, “Percolative model and thermodynamic analysis of oxygen ion mediated resistive switching”,*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp.712-714, (2012).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, K. Shubhakar, X. Wu, W.H. Liu and M. Bosman, “Role of grain boundary percolative defects and localized trap generation on the reliability statistics of high-κ gate dielectric stacks”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Anaheim, Orange County, California, 6A.1.1 – 6A.1.11, (2012).- M.A. Danilyuk, D.B. Migas, A.L. Danilyuk, V.E. Borisenko, X. Wu,
**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, “Thermal reversible breakdown and resistivity switching in hafnium dioxide”,*Journal of Nano- and Electronic Physics*, Vol. 4, No. 1,01014, (2012). - K.L. Pey,
**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu, W.H. Liu and M. Bosman, “Dielectric breakdown – recovery in logic and resistive switching in memory – Bridging the gap between the two phenomena”,*11*, Xian, China,^{th}International Conference on Solid State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)__Invited__, pp.1-6, (2012). - K. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey, M. Bosman, R. Thamankar, Z.R. Wang,
**N. Raghavan**, S.S. Kushvaha and S.J. O’Shea, “Nanoscale physical analysis of localized breakdown events in HfO_{2}based dielectric stacks : A correlation study of STM-induced breakdown with C-AFM and TEM”,*IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)*, Singapore, pp.1-7, (2012). - W.H. Liu, K.L. Pey,
**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu and M. Bosman, “Triggering voltage for post-breakdown random telegraph noise in HfLaO dielectric metal gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors and its reliability implications”,*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 111, Issue 2, 024101, (2012). **N. Raghavan**,**K.L. Pey, X. Li, W.H. Liu, X. Wu, M. Bosman and T. Kauerauf, “Very low reset current in RRAM achieved in the oxygen vacancy controlled regime”,***IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp.716-718, (2011).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, W.H. Liu, X. Wu, X. Li and M. Bosman, “Evidence for compliance controlled oxygen vacancy and metal filament based resistive switching mechanisms in RRAM”,*17*, Grenoble, France. Published in^{th}International Symposium on Insulating Films on Semiconductors (INFOS)*Microelectronic Engineering*, Vol. 88, Issue 7, pp.1124-1128, (2011).- K.L. Pey,
**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu, W.H. Liu, X. Li, M. Bosman, K. Shubhakar, Z.Z. Lwin, Y.N. Chen, H. Qin and T. Kauerauf, “Physical analysis of breakdown in high-κ / metal gate stacks using TEM/EELS and STM for reliability enhancement”,*17*,^{th}International Symposium on Insulating Films on Semiconductors (INFOS)*Invited Paper*, Grenoble, France. Published in*Microelectronic Engineering*, Vol. 88, Issue 7, pp.1365-1372, (2011). - W.H. Liu, K.L. Pey, X. Wu,
**N. Raghavan**, A. Padovani, L. Larcher, L. Vandelli, M. Bosman and T. Kauerauf, “Threshold shift observed in resistive switching in metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors and the effect of forming gas anneal”,*Applied Physics Letters*, Vol. 99, Issue 23, 232909, (2011). - X. Wu, K.L. Pey,
**N. Raghavan**, W.H. Liu, X. Li, P. Bai, G. Zhang and M. Bosman, “Using post-breakdown conduction study in MIS structure to better understand resistive switching mechanism in MIM stack”,*Nanotechnology*, Vol. 22, No. 45, 455702, (2011). - X. Wu, Z. Fang, K. Li, M. Bosman,
**N. Raghavan**, X. Li, H.Y. Yu, N. Singh, G.Q. Lo, X.X. Zhang and K.L. Pey, “Chemical insight into origin of forming-free RRAM devices”,*Applied Physics Letters*, Vol. 19, Issue 13, 133504, (2011). - X. Wu, K. Li,
**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman, Q.X. Wang, D. Cha, X.X. Zhang and K.L. Pey, “Uncorrelated multiple conductive filament nucleation and rupture in ultra-thin high-κ dielectric based RRAM”,*Applied Physics Letters*, Vol. 99, 093502, (2011). (Also selected to be published in the*Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology,*Sept’11 Issue). **N. Raghavan**, W.H. Liu, X. Li, X. Wu, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Filamentation mechanism of resistive switching in fully-silicided high-κ gate stacks”,*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp.455-457, (2011).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, X. Wu, W.H. Liu, X. Li, M. Bosman and T. Kauerauf, “Oxygen soluble gate electrodes for prolonged high-κ gate stack reliability”,*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp.252-254, (2011).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, K. Shubhakar and M. Bosman, “Modified percolation model for polycrystalline high-κ gate dielectric stack with grain boundary defects”,*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp.78-80, (2011).- Z.Z. Lwin, K.L. Pey,
**N. Raghavan**, Y.N. Chen and S. Mahapatra, “New leakage mechanism and dielectric breakdown layer detection in metal nanocrystals embedded dual layer memory gate stack”,*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp.800-802, (2011). - K. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey, S.S. Kushvaha, S.J. O’Shea,
**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman, M. Kouda, K. Kakushima and H. Iwai, “Grain boundary assisted degradation and breakdown study in cerium oxide gate dielectric using scanning tunneling microscopy”,*Applied Physics Letters*, Vol. 98, 072902, (2011). - W.H. Liu, K.L. Pey,
**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu and M. Bosman, “Random telegraph noise reduction in metal gate high-κ stacks by bipolar switching and the performance boosting technique”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium*(*IRPS*), Monterey, California, pp.182-189, (2011). - K. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey, S.S. Kushvaha, S.J. O’Shea, M. Bosman,
**N. Raghavan**, M. Kouda, K. Kakushima, Z.R. Wang, H.Y. Yu and H. Iwai, “Nanoscale physical study of polycrystalline high-κ gate dielectric stacks and proposed reliability enhancement techniques”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium*(*IRPS*), Monterey, California, pp.786-791, (2011). - A.L. Danilyuk, D.B. Migas, M.A. Danilyuk, V.E. Borisenko, X. Wu,
**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, “Thermal formation of switching resistivity nanowires in hafnium dioxide”,*Proceedings of the International Conference on Nanomeeting*, Minsk, Belarus, pp.39-42, (2011). **N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, W.H. Liu and M. Bosman, “Post breakdown gate current low frequency noise spectrum as a detection tool for high-κ and interfacial layer breakdown”,*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 31, No. 9, pp.1035-1037, (2010).- X. Li, W.H. Liu,
M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Resistive switching in NiSi gate metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors”,**N. Raghavan****,***Applied Physics Letters*, 97, 202904, (2010). - A. Padovani, L. Morassi,
**N. Raghavan**, L. Larcher, W.H. Liu, K.L. Pey and G. Bersuker, “A physical model for post-breakdown digital gate current noise”,*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 31, No. 9, pp.1032-1034, (2010). - K.L. Pey, X. Wu, W.H. Liu, X. Li,
**N. Raghavan**, K. Shubhakar and M. Bosman, “An overview of physical analysis of nanosize conductive path in ultra-thin SiON and high-κ gate dielectrics in nanoelectronic devices”,*IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)*,*Invited Paper*, pp.253-264, (2010). **N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, W.H. Liu, X. Wu and X. Li, “Unipolar Recovery of Dielectric Breakdown in Fully Silicided high-κ gate stacks and its reliability implications”,*Applied Physics Letters*, 96, 142901, (2010).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, W.H. Liu and X. Li, “New statistical model to decode the reliability and Weibull Slope of High-κ and Interfacial Layer in a Dual Layer Dielectric Stack”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Anaheim, California, pp.778-786, (2010).- K.L. Pey,
**N. Raghavan**, X. Li, W.H. Liu, K. Shubhakar, X. Wu and M. Bosman, “New insight into TDDB and Post Breakdown Reliability of Novel High-κ Gate Dielectric Stacks”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*,*Invited Paper*, Anaheim, California, pp.354-363, (2010). - X. Wu, D.B. Migas, X. Li, M. Bosman,
**N. Raghavan**, V.E. Borisenko and K.L. Pey, “Role of oxygen vacancies in HfO2 based gate stack breakdown”*Applied Physics Letters*, Vol. 96, 172901, (2010). - X. Wu, K.L. Pey, G. Zhang, P. Bai, X. Li, W.H. Liu and
**N. Raghavan**, “Electrode material dependent breakdown and recovery in advanced high-κ gate stacks”,*Applied Physics Letters*, Vol. 96, 202903, (2010). **N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey and X. Li, “Detection of high-κ and interfacial layer breakdown using the tunneling mechanism in a dual layer dielectric stack”,*Applied Physics Letters*, Vol. 95, 222903, (2009).**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu, X. Li, W.H. Liu, V.L. Lo and K.L. Pey, “Post breakdown reliability enhancement of ULSI circuits with novel gate dielectric stacks”,*IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Circuits (ISIC)*, Singapore, pp.505-513, (2009).

**PROGNOSTICS AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT (PHM)**

**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, “Percolation framework and Monte Carlo techniques for improved probabilistic design of variability in products and systems”,*6*,^{th}International Conference on Research into Design (ICoRD)__Accepted, In Press__, (2017).- N. Raghavan and D.D. Frey, “Real-time update of multi-state system reliability using prognostics data-driven techniques”,
*62*, pp.1-5, (2016).^{nd }IEEE Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS) **N. Raghavan**and D.D. Frey, “Particle filter approach to lifetime prediction for microelectronic devices and systems with multiple failure mechanisms”,*26*,^{th}European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF)*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 55, No. 9, pp. 1297-1301, (2015).**N. Raghavan**and D.D. Frey, “Remaining useful life estimation for systems subject to multiple degradation mechanisms”,*IEEE Conference on Prognostics and Health Management (PHM)*, pp. 1-8, (2015).**N. Raghavan**, D.D. Frey and K.L. Pey, “Prognostic methodology for remaining useful life estimation of retention loss in nanoscale resistive switching memory”,*25*,^{th}European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF)*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 54, Issue 9, pp.1729-1734, (2014).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey and D.D. Frey, “Noise based prognostic design for real-time degradation analysis of dielectric breakdown”,*60th IEEE Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS)*, pp.370-376, Orlando, Florida, (2013).**N. Raghavan**, K. Shubhakar and K.L. Pey, “Monte Carlo evidence for need of improved percolation model for non-Weibullian degradation in high-κ dielectrics”,*60th IEEE Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS)*, pp.839-845, Orlando, Florida, (2013).

**ELECTROMIGRATION / INTERCONNECT RELIABILITY**

- A. Heryanto, K.L. Pey, Y.K. Lim,
**N. Raghavan**, W. Liu, J. Wei, C.L. Gan and J.B. Tan, “Stress migration risk on electromigration reliability in advanced narrow line copper interconnects”,*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 110, Issue 8, 083702, (2011). - A. Heryanto, K.L. Pey, Y.K. Lim, W. Liu,
**N. Raghavan**, J. Wei, C.L. Gan, M.K. Lim and J.B. Tan, “The effect of stress migration on electromigration in dual damascene copper interconnects”,*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 109, Issue 1, 013716, (2011). - A. Heryanto, K.L. Pey, Y.K. Lim, W. Liu, J. Wei,
**N. Raghavan**, J.B. Tan and D.K. Sohn, “Study of stress migration and electromigration interaction in copper / low-κ interconnects”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Anaheim, California, pp.586-590, (2010). **N. Raghavan**and K. Prasad, “Statistical outlook into the physics of failure for copper low-K intra-metal dielectric breakdown”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Quebec, Canada, pp.819-824, (2009).- X. Li, C.M. Tan and
**N. Raghavan**– “Predictive dynamic simulation for void nucleation during electromigration in ULSI interconnects”,*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 105, 014305, (2009). - C.M. Tan and
**N. Raghavan**– “A bimodal 3-parameter Lognormal Mixture Distribution for Electromigration Failures”,*Thin Solid Films*, Vol. 516, pp.8804-8809, (2008). **N. Raghavan**and C.M. Tan, “Statistical Modeling of Via Redundancy Effects on Interconnect Reliability”,*15th IEEE International Symposium on the Physics and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)*, Singapore, pp.67-71, (2008).- C.M. Tan,
**N. Raghavan**and A. Roy – “Application of Gamma Distribution in Electromigration for Submicron Interconnects”,*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 102, No. 10, 103703, (2007). - C.M. Tan and
**N. Raghavan**– “Unveiling the Electromigration Physics of ULSI Interconnects through Statistics”,*Semiconductor Science and Technology*, Vol. 22, pp.941-946, (2007). - C.M. Tan and
**N. Raghavan**– “An approach to Statistical Analysis of Gate Oxide Breakdown Mechanisms”,*18*,^{th}European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics & Analysis (ESREF)*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 47, Issues 9 – 11, pp.1336-1342, (2007). **N. Raghavan**and C.M. Tan, “Statistical Analysis of Multi-Censored Electromigration Data using the EM Algorithm”,*14*, Bangalore, India, pp.257-262, (2007).^{th}IEEE International Symposium on the Physics and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)

**RELIABILITY & MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING**

- C.M. Tan and
**N. Raghavan**, “Imperfect predictive maintenance model for multi-state systems with multiple failure modes and element failure dependency”,*IEEE Prognostics and Health Management Conference (PHM)*, pp.1-12, Macau, China, (2010). - C.M. Tan and
**N. Raghavan**– “Reply to Comments on ‘A framework to practical predictive maintenance modeling for multi-state systems’”,*Reliability Engineering & System Safety*, Vol. 94, Issue 3, pp.781-782, (2009). - C.M. Tan and
**N. Raghavan**– “A Framework to Practical Predictive Maintenance Modeling for Multi-State Systems”,*Reliability Engineering and System Safety*, Vol. 93, Issue 8, pp.1138-1150, (2008). - C.M. Tan and
**N. Raghavan**– “Root Cause Analysis based maintenance policy”,*International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management (IJQRM)*, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp.203 – 228. (2007). - C.M. Tan and
**N. Raghavan**– “A comprehensive predictive maintenance model for equipment maintenance in the semiconductor industry”,*IFAC Workshop on Advanced Process Control for Semiconductor Manufacturing*, Singapore, (2006). - C.M. Tan and
**N. Raghavan**– “A cost model for the predictive maintenance of a multi-state system”,*10*, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA, (2006).^{th}Maintenance and Reliability Conference (MARCON) **N. Raghavan**and C.M. Tan – “Examine the impact of maintenance policy for predictive maintenance”,*4*, Beijing, China, (2005).^{th}International Conference on Quality and Reliability (ICQR)

**SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE PHYSICS**

- C.M. Tan,
**N. Raghavan**, L. Sun, C. Hsu and C. Wang, “Comparative study of non-standard power diodes”, 4, pp.3307-3314, Xian, China, (2009).^{th}IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA) - C.M. Tan, L. Sun,
**N. Raghavan**, G. Huang, C. Hsu and C. Wang, “The Physical Limit and Manufacturability of Power Diode with Carrier Lifetime Control”,*2*, pp.46-51, Harbin, China, (2007).^{nd}IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA) **N. Raghavan**, N. Hwang and C.M. Tan – “A comprehensive semi-empirical mobility model for strained-Si NMOSFETs”,*8*, Shanghai, China (2006).^{th}IEEE International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuits Technology (ICSICT)