PUBLICATIONS

NANOELECTRONIC DEVICE RELIABILITY

  1. S. Mei, N. Raghavan, M. Bosman, D. Linten, G. Groeseneken, N. Horiguchi and K.L. Pey, “New Understanding of Dielectric Breakdown in Advanced FinFET Devices – Physical, Electrical, Statistical and Multiphysics Study”, IEEE International Electron Device Meeting (IEDM), pp. 1-4, (2016).
  2. N. Raghavan, “Application of the defect clustering model for forming, SET and RESET statistics in RRAM devices”, 27th European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 64, pp. 54-58, (2016).
  3. A. Ranjan, N. Raghavan, J. Molina, S.J. O’Shea, K. Shubhakar and K.L. Pey, “Analysis of quantum conductance, read disturb and switching statistics in HfO2 RRAM using conductive AFM”, 27th European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 64, pp. 172-178, (2016).
  4. K. Shubhakar, S. Mei, M. Bosman, N. Raghavan, A. Ranjan, S.J. O’Shea and K.L. Pey, “Conductive filament formation at grain boundary locations in polycrystalline HfO2-based MIM stacks – Computational and physical insight”, 27th European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 64, pp.204-209, (2016).
  5. K.L. Pey, A. Ranjan, R. Thamankar, K. Shubhakar, N. Raghavan and S.J. O’Shea, “Observation of resistive switching by physical analysis techniques”, 5th International Symposium on Next-Generation Electronics (ISNE), Invited, pp. 1-2, (2016).
  6. K.L. Pey, R. Thamankar, S. Mei, M. Bosman, N. Raghavan and K. Shubhakar, “Understanding the switching mechanism in RRAM using in-situ TEM”, IEEE Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop (SNW), Invited, pp. 1-2, (2016).
  7. K.L. Pey, A. Ranjan, R. Thamankar, K. Shubhakar, N. Raghavan and S.J. O’Shea, “Random telegraph noise study in HfO2 dielectric stacks using STM/CAFM: Analysis of local defects, degradation and breakdown”, IEEE International Nanoelectronics Conference (INEC), Invited, pp. 1-2, (2016).
  8. A. Ranjan, N. Raghavan, K. Shubhakar, R. Thamankar, J. Molina, S.J. O’Shea, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “CAFM based spectroscopy of stress-induced defects in HfO2 with experimental evidence of the clustering model and metastable vacancy defect state”, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), pp. 7A-4, (2016).
  9. S. Mei, N. Raghavan, K. Shubhakar, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Multiphysics based 3D percolation framework model for multi-stage degradation and breakdown in high-κ – interfacial layer stacks”, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), pp. 7A-2, (2016).
  10. R. Thamankar, N. Raghavan, J. Molina, F.M. Puglisi, S.J. O’Shea, K. Shubhakar, L. Larcher,       P. Pavan, A. Padovani and K.L. Pey, “Single vacancy defect spectroscopy on HfO2 using random telegraph noise signals from scanning tunneling microscopy”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 119, No. 8, 084304, (2016).
  11. S. Mei, M. Bosman, N. Raghavan, X. Wu and K.L. Pey, “Compliance current dominates evolution of NiSi2 defect size in Ni/dielectric/Si RRAM devices”, Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 61, Issue 6, pp.71-77, (2016).
  12. N. Raghavan, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Probabilistic insight to possibility of new filament nucleation during repeated cycling of conducting bridge memory”, 26th European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 55, Issue 9, pp. 1412-1416, (2015).
  13. N. Raghavan, D.D. Frey, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Statistics of retention failure in the low resistance state for hafnium oxide RRAM using a Kinetic Monte Carlo approach”, 26th European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 55, Issue 9, pp. 1422-1426, (2015).
  14. K. Shubhakar, M. Bosman, O. A. Neucheva, Y. C. Loke, N. Raghavan, R. Thamankar, A. Ranjan, S. J. O’Shea, and K. L. Pey, “An SEM/STM based nanoprobing and TEM study of breakdown locations in HfO2/SiOx dielectric stacks for failure analysis”, 26th European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 55, Issue 9, pp. 1450-1455, (2015).
  15. R. Degraeve, A. Fantini, N. Raghavan, L. Goux, S. Clima, B. Govoreanu, A. Belmonte, D. Linten and M. Jurczak, “Causes and consequences of the stochastic aspect of filamentary RRAM”, Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 147, pp. 171-175, (2015).
  16. X. Wu, S. Mei, M. Bosman, N. Raghavan, X.X. Zhang, D. Cha, K. Li and K.L. Pey, “Evolution of Filament Formation in Ni/HfO2/SiOx/Si‐Based RRAM Devices”, Advanced Electronic Materials, Issue 1, No. 11, (2015).
  17. N. Raghavan, W. H. Liu, R. Thamankar, M. Bosman and K. L. Pey, “Understanding defect kinetics in ultra-thin dielectric logic and memory devices using random telegraph noise analysis”, 22nd International IEEE Symposium Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA), pp. 149-153, (2015).
  18. A. Ranjan, K. Shubhakar, N. Raghavan, R. Thamankar, M. Bosman, S. J. O’Shea, and K. L. Pey. “Localized Random Telegraphic Noise Study in HfO2 dielectric stacks using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy — Analysis of process and stress-induced traps”, 22nd International IEEE Symposium Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA), pp. 458-462, (2015).
  19. N. Raghavan, M. Bosman, and K. L. Pey, “Spectroscopy of SILC trap locations and spatial correlation study of percolation path in the high-κ and interfacial layer”, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), pp. 5A-2, (2015).
  20. N. Raghavan, D. D. Frey, M. Bosman, and K. L. Pey, “Monte Carlo model of reset stochastics and failure rate estimation of read disturb mechanism in HfOx RRAM”, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), pp. 5B-2, (2015).
  21. N. Raghavan, M. Bosman, D.D. Frey and K.L. Pey, “Variability model for forming process in oxygen vacancy modulated high-κ based resistive switching memory devices”, 25th European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 54, Issues 9-10, pp. 2266-2271, (2014).
  22. N. Raghavan, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Assessment of read disturb immunity in conducting bridge memory devices – A thermodynamic perspective”, 25th European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF)Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 54, Issues 9-10, pp. 2295-2299, (2014).
  23. N. Raghavan, “Performance and reliability trade-offs for high-κ RRAM”, 25th European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Invited Paper, Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 54, Issues 9-10, pp. 2253-2257, (2014).
  24. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, D.D. Frey and M. Bosman, “Impact of ionic drift and vacancy defect passivation on TDDB statistics and lifetime enhancement of metal gate high-κ stacks”, 52nd IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), Waikoloa, Hawaii, 5B.4.1-5B.4.7, (2014).
  25. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, D.D. Frey and M. Bosman, “Stochastic failure model for endurance degradation in vacancy modulated HfOx RRAM using the percolation cell framework”, 52nd IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), Waikoloa, Hawaii, MY.9.1-MY.9.7, (2014).
  26. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey and K. Shubhakar, “High-κ dielectric breakdown in nanoscale logic devices – Scientific insight and technology impact”, Microelectronics Reliability, Introductory Invited Paper, Vol. 54, Issue 5, pp.847-860, (2014).
  27. L. Goux, N. Raghavan, A. Fantini, R. Nigon, S. Strangio, R. Degraeve, G.S. Kar, Y.Y. Chen, F. De Stefano, V.V. Afanas’ev and M. Jurczak, “On the bipolar resistive switching characteristics of Al2O3 and HfO2 based memory cells operated in the soft-breakdown regime”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 116, 134502, (2014).
  28. K. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey, N. Raghavan, M. Bosman, S.S. Kushvaha, Z.R. Wang and S.J. O’Shea, “Impact of local structural and electrical property of grain boundaries in polycrystalline HfO2 on reliability of SiOx interfacial layer”, 25th European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF)Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 54, Issues 9-10, pp. 1712-1717, (2014).
  29. K.L. Pey, N. Raghavan, X. Wu and M. Bosman, “Filamentary switching with semiconducting bottom electrode – Physical insight and advantages”, International Electron Devices and Materials Symposium (IEDMS), Hualien, Taiwan, Invited, pp.1-3, (2014).
  30. R. Degraeve, A. Fantini, N. Raghavan, L. Goux, S. Clima, Y.Y. Chen, A. Belmonte, S. Cosemans, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, Ph. Roussel, G.S. Kar, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Hourglass concept for RRAM: a dynamic and statistical device model”, 21st IEEE International Symposium on the Physics and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA), Singapore, Invited, pp. 1-4, (2014).
  31. W.H. Liu, A. Padovani, L. Larcher, N. Raghavan and K.L. Pey, “Analysis of correlated gate and drain random telegraph noise in post soft-breakdown TiN/HfLaO/SiOx nMOSFETs”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp.157-159, (2014).
  32. K. Shubhakar, N. Raghavan and K.L. Pey, “Nanoscopic study of HfO2 based high-κ dielectric stacks and its failure analysis”, International Journal of Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp.81-86, (2014).
  33. N. Raghavan, R. Degraeve, A. Fantini, L. Goux, D.J. Wouters, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Stochastic variability of vacancy filament configuration in ultra-thin dielectric RRAM and its impact on OFF-state reliability”, IEEE International Electron Device Symposium (IEDM), Washington, USA, pp. 21.1.1-21.1.4, (2013).
  34. N. Raghavan, A. Padovani, X. Li, X. Wu, V.L. Lo, M. Bosman, L. Larcher and K.L. Pey, “Resilience of ultra-thin oxynitride films to percolative wear-out and reliability implications for high-κ stacks at low voltage stress”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 114, 094504, (2013).
  35. N. Raghavan, X. Wu, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Feasibility of SILC recovery in sub-10Ǻ EOT advanced metal gate – high-κ stacks”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 34, No. 8, pp.1053-1055, (2013).
  36. A. Padovani, N. Raghavan, L. Larcher and K.L. Pey, “Identifying the first layer to fail in dual layer SiOx / HfSiON gate dielectric stacks”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 34, No. 10, pp.1289-1291, (2013).
  37. Y.Y. Chen, M. Komura, R. Degraeve, B. Govoreanu, L. Goux, A. Fantini, N. Raghavan, S. Clima, L. Zhang, A. Belmonte, A. Redolfi, G.S. Kar, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Improvement of data retention in HfO2 / Hf 1T-1R RRAM cell under low operating current”, IEEE International Electron Device Symposium (IEDM), Washington, USA, pp.10.1.1-10.1.4, (2013).
  38. R. Degraeve, A. Fantini, N. Raghavan, Y.Y. Chen, L. Goux, S. Clima, S. Cosemans, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, P.J. Roussel, G.S. Kar, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Modeling SET and RESET transients in Hf-based RRAM devices using the hourglass approach”, 44th IEEE Semiconductor Interface Specialists Conference (SISC), Arlington, Virginia, USA, Invited, pp.1-2, (2013).
  39. K.L. Pey, K. Shubhakar, N. Raghavan, X. Wu and M. Bosman, “Impact of local variations in high-κ dielectric on breakdown and recovery characteristics of advanced gate stacks”, IEEE International Conference of  Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), Invited, pp.1-2, (2013).
  40. N. Raghavan, R. Degraeve, A. Fantini, L. Goux, D.J. Wouters, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Modeling the impact of reset depth on vacancy induced filament perturbations in HfO2 RRAM”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 34, No. 5, pp.614-616, (2013).
  41. N. Raghavan, R. Degraeve, L. Goux, A. Fantini, D.J. Wouters, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “RTN insight to filamentary instability and disturb immunity in ultra-low power switching HfOx and AlOx RRAM”, IEEE VLSI Technology Symposium (VLSI), Kyoto, Japan, T163-T164, (2013).
  42. N. Raghavan, A. Padovani, X. Wu, K. Shubhakar, M. Bosman, L. Larcher and K.L. Pey, “The ‘buffering’ role of high-κ in post breakdown degradation immunity of advanced dual layer dielectric gate stacks”, 51st IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), Monterey, California, pp.5A.3.1-5A.3.8, (2013).
  43. N. Raghavan, R. Degraeve, A. Fantini, L. Goux, S. Strangio, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Microscopic origin of random telegraph noise fluctuations in aggressively scaled RRAM and its impact on read disturb variability”, 51st IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), Monterey, California, pp.5E.3.1-5E.3.7, (2013).
  44. N. Raghavan, A. Fantini, R. Degraeve, P.J. Roussel, L. Goux, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Statistical insight into controlled forming and forming-free stacks for HfOx RRAM”, 18th International Symposium on Insulating Films on Semiconductors (INFOS), Krakow, Poland, Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 109, Issue 9, pp.177-181, (2013).
  45. R. Degraeve, A. Fantini, N. Raghavan, Y.Y. Chen, L. Goux, S. Clima, S. Cosemans, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, P.J. Roussel, G.S. Kar, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Modeling RRAM set/reset statistics resulting in guidelines for optimized operation”, IEEE VLSI Technology Symposium (VLSI), Kyoto, Japan, T98-T99, (2013).
  46. L. Goux, A. Fantini, R. Degraeve, N. Raghavan, R. Nigon, S. Strangio, G.S. Kar, D.J. Wouters, Y.Y. Chen, M. Komura, F. De Stefano, V.V. Afanas’ev and M. Jurczak, “Understanding of the intrinsic characteristics and memory trade-offs of sub-µA filamentary RRAM operation”, IEEE VLSI Technology Symposium (VLSI), Kyoto, Japan, T162-T163, (2013).
  47. K.L. Pey, N. Raghavan, W.H. Liu, X. Wu, K. Shubhakar and M. Bosman, “Real-time analysis of ultra-thin gate dielectric breakdown and recovery – A reality”, IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA), Suzhou, China, Invited, pp.1-13, (2013).
  48. A. Fantini, L. Goux, R. Degraeve, D.J. Wouters, N. Raghavan, G.S. Kar, A. Belmonte, Y.Y. Chen, B. Govoreanu and M. Jurczak, “Intrinsic variability in HfO2 RRAM”, 5th IEEE International Memory Workshop (IMW), Monterey, California, pp.30-33, (2013).
  49. B. Govoreanu, A. Ajaykumar, H. Lipowicz, Y.Y. Chen, J.C. Liu, R. Degraeve, L. Zhang, S. Clima, L. Goux, I.P. Radu, A. Fantini, N. Raghavan, G.S. Kar, W. Kim, A. Redolfi, D.J. Wouters, L. Altimime and M. Jurczak, “Performance and reliability of ultra-thin HfO2-based RRAM (UTO-RRAM), 5th IEEE International Memory Workshop (IMW), Monterey, California, pp.48-51, (2013).
  50. S. Clima, R. Degraeve, K. Sankaran, Y.Y. Chen, A. Fantini, A. Belmonte, L. Zhang, N. Raghavan, L.Goux, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, M. Jurczak and G. Pourtois, “Switching aspects of RRAM – First principles and model simulations insight”, American Vacuum Society 60th International Symposium and Exhibition – Electronic Materials and Processing (AVS), Invited, Long Beach, California, USA, (2013).
  51. X. Wu, D. Cha, M. Bosman, N. Raghavan, D.B. Migas, V.E. Borisenko, X.X. Zhang, K. Li and K.L. Pey, “Intrinsic nano-filamentation in resistance switching”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 113, 114503, (2013).
  52. K. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey, N. Raghavan, M. Bosman, S.S. Kushvaha, Z.R. Wang and S.J. O’Shea, “Study of preferential localized degradation and breakdown of HfO2/SiOx dielectric stacks at grain boundary sites of polycrystalline HfO2 dielectrics”, 18th International Symposium on Insulating Films on Semiconductors (INFOS), Krakow, Poland, Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 109, Issue 9, pp.364-369, (2013).
  53. A.L. Danilyuk, D.B. Migas, M.A. Danilyuk, V.E. Borisenko, X. Wu, N. Raghavan and K.L. Pey, “Multiphonon ionization of traps formed in hafnium oxide by electrical stress”, Physica Status Solidi A, Vol. 210, Issue 2, pp.361-366, (2013).
  54. N. Raghavan, X. Wu, W.H. Liu, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Physical Analysis and Insight into Filamentary Switching in Nickel Electrode based RRAM”, 3rd International Workshop on Simulation and Modeling of Memory Devices (IWSMM), Milan, Italy, (2012).
  55. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, X. Wu, W.H. Liu and M. Bosman, “Percolative model and thermodynamic analysis of oxygen ion mediated resistive switching”, IEEE Electron Device Letters,  Vol. 33, No. 5, pp.712-714, (2012).
  56. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, K. Shubhakar, X. Wu, W.H. Liu and M. Bosman, “Role of grain boundary percolative defects and localized trap generation on the reliability statistics of high-κ gate dielectric stacks”, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), Anaheim, Orange County, California, 6A.1.1 – 6A.1.11, (2012).
  57. M.A. Danilyuk, D.B. Migas, A.L. Danilyuk, V.E. Borisenko, X. Wu, N. Raghavan and K.L. Pey, “Thermal reversible breakdown and resistivity switching in hafnium dioxide”, Journal of Nano- and Electronic Physics, Vol. 4, No. 1,01014, (2012).
  58. K.L. Pey, N. Raghavan, X. Wu, W.H. Liu and M. Bosman, “Dielectric breakdown – recovery in logic and resistive switching in memory – Bridging the gap between the two phenomena”, 11thInternational Conference on Solid State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT), Xian, China, Invited, pp.1-6, (2012).
  59. K. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey, M. Bosman, R. Thamankar, Z.R. Wang, N. Raghavan, S.S. Kushvaha and S.J. O’Shea, “Nanoscale physical analysis of localized breakdown events in HfO2 based dielectric stacks : A correlation study of STM-induced breakdown with C-AFM and TEM”, IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA), Singapore, pp.1-7, (2012).
  60. W.H. Liu, K.L. Pey, N. Raghavan, X. Wu and M. Bosman, “Triggering voltage for post-breakdown random telegraph noise in HfLaO dielectric metal gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors and its reliability implications”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 111, Issue 2, 024101, (2012).
  61. N. RaghavanK.L. Pey, X. Li, W.H. Liu, X. Wu, M. Bosman and T. Kauerauf, “Very low reset current in RRAM achieved in the oxygen vacancy controlled regime”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp.716-718, (2011).
  62. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, W.H. Liu, X. Wu, X. Li and M. Bosman, “Evidence for compliance controlled oxygen vacancy and metal filament based resistive switching mechanisms in RRAM”, 17th International Symposium on Insulating Films on Semiconductors (INFOS), Grenoble, France. Published in Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 88, Issue 7, pp.1124-1128, (2011).
  63. K.L. Pey, N. Raghavan, X. Wu, W.H. Liu, X. Li, M. Bosman, K. Shubhakar, Z.Z. Lwin, Y.N. Chen, H. Qin and T. Kauerauf, “Physical analysis of breakdown in high-κ / metal gate stacks using TEM/EELS and STM for reliability enhancement”, 17th International Symposium on Insulating Films on Semiconductors (INFOS), Invited Paper, Grenoble, France. Published in Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 88, Issue 7, pp.1365-1372, (2011).
  64. W.H. Liu, K.L. Pey, X. Wu, N. Raghavan, A. Padovani, L. Larcher, L. Vandelli, M. Bosman and T. Kauerauf, “Threshold shift observed in resistive switching in metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors and the effect of forming gas anneal”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, Issue 23, 232909, (2011).
  65. X. Wu, K.L. Pey, N. Raghavan, W.H. Liu, X. Li, P. Bai, G. Zhang and M. Bosman, “Using post-breakdown conduction study in MIS structure to better understand resistive switching mechanism in MIM stack”, Nanotechnology, Vol. 22, No. 45, 455702, (2011).
  66. X. Wu, Z. Fang, K. Li, M. Bosman, N. Raghavan, X. Li, H.Y. Yu, N. Singh, G.Q. Lo, X.X. Zhang and K.L. Pey, “Chemical insight into origin of forming-free RRAM devices”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 19, Issue 13, 133504, (2011).
  67. X. Wu, K. Li, N. Raghavan, M. Bosman, Q.X. Wang, D. Cha, X.X. Zhang and K.L. Pey, “Uncorrelated multiple conductive filament nucleation and rupture in ultra-thin high-κ dielectric based RRAM”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, 093502, (2011). (Also selected to be published in the Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology, Sept’11 Issue).
  68. N. Raghavan, W.H. Liu, X. Li, X. Wu, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Filamentation mechanism of resistive switching in fully-silicided high-κ gate stacks”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp.455-457,  (2011).
  69. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, X. Wu, W.H. Liu, X. Li, M. Bosman and T. Kauerauf, “Oxygen soluble gate electrodes for prolonged high-κ gate stack reliability”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp.252-254, (2011).
  70. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, K. Shubhakar and M. Bosman, “Modified percolation model for polycrystalline high-κ gate dielectric stack with grain boundary defects”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp.78-80, (2011).
  71. Z.Z. Lwin, K.L. Pey, N. Raghavan, Y.N. Chen and S. Mahapatra, “New leakage mechanism and dielectric breakdown layer detection in metal nanocrystals embedded dual layer memory gate stack”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp.800-802, (2011).
  72. K. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey, S.S. Kushvaha, S.J. O’Shea, N. Raghavan, M. Bosman, M. Kouda, K. Kakushima and H. Iwai, “Grain boundary assisted degradation and breakdown study in cerium oxide gate dielectric using scanning tunneling microscopy”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, 072902, (2011).
  73. W.H. Liu, K.L. Pey, N. Raghavan, X. Wu and M. Bosman, “Random telegraph noise reduction in metal gate high-κ stacks by bipolar switching and the performance boosting technique”, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), Monterey, California, pp.182-189, (2011).
  74. K. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey, S.S. Kushvaha, S.J. O’Shea, M. Bosman, N. Raghavan, M. Kouda, K. Kakushima, Z.R. Wang, H.Y. Yu and H. Iwai, “Nanoscale physical study of polycrystalline high-κ gate dielectric stacks and proposed reliability enhancement techniques”, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), Monterey, California, pp.786-791, (2011).
  75. A.L. Danilyuk, D.B. Migas, M.A. Danilyuk, V.E. Borisenko, X. Wu, N. Raghavan and K.L. Pey, “Thermal formation of switching resistivity nanowires in hafnium dioxide”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Nanomeeting, Minsk, Belarus, pp.39-42, (2011).
  76. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, W.H. Liu and M. Bosman, “Post breakdown gate current low frequency noise spectrum as a detection tool for high-κ and interfacial layer breakdown”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 31, No. 9, pp.1035-1037, (2010).
  77. X. Li, W.H. Liu, N. Raghavan, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Resistive switching in NiSi gate metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors”, Applied Physics Letters, 97, 202904, (2010).
  78. A. Padovani, L. Morassi, N. Raghavan, L. Larcher, W.H. Liu, K.L. Pey and G. Bersuker, “A physical model for post-breakdown digital gate current noise”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 31, No. 9, pp.1032-1034, (2010).
  79. K.L. Pey, X. Wu, W.H. Liu, X. Li, N. Raghavan, K. Shubhakar and M. Bosman, “An overview of physical analysis of nanosize conductive path in ultra-thin SiON and high-κ gate dielectrics in nanoelectronic devices”, IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA), Invited Paper, pp.253-264, (2010).
  80. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, W.H. Liu, X. Wu and X. Li, “Unipolar Recovery of Dielectric Breakdown in Fully Silicided high-κ gate stacks and its reliability implications”, Applied Physics Letters, 96, 142901, (2010).
  81. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey, W.H. Liu and X. Li, “New statistical model to decode the reliability and Weibull Slope of High-κ and Interfacial Layer in a Dual Layer Dielectric Stack”, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), Anaheim, California, pp.778-786, (2010).
  82. K.L. Pey, N. Raghavan, X. Li, W.H. Liu, K. Shubhakar, X. Wu and M. Bosman, “New insight into TDDB and Post Breakdown Reliability of Novel High-κ Gate Dielectric Stacks”, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), Invited Paper, Anaheim, California, pp.354-363, (2010).
  83. X. Wu, D.B. Migas, X. Li, M. Bosman, N. Raghavan, V.E. Borisenko and K.L. Pey, “Role of oxygen vacancies in HfO2 based gate stack breakdown” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, 172901, (2010).
  84. X. Wu, K.L. Pey, G. Zhang, P. Bai, X. Li, W.H. Liu and N. Raghavan, “Electrode material dependent breakdown and recovery in advanced high-κ gate stacks”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, 202903, (2010).
  85. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey and X. Li, “Detection of high-κ and interfacial layer breakdown using the tunneling mechanism in a dual layer dielectric stack”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, 222903, (2009).
  86. N. Raghavan, X. Wu, X. Li, W.H. Liu, V.L. Lo and K.L. Pey, “Post breakdown reliability enhancement of ULSI circuits with novel gate dielectric stacks”, IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Circuits (ISIC), Singapore, pp.505-513, (2009).

PROGNOSTICS AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT (PHM)

  1. N. Raghavan and K.L. Pey, “Percolation framework and Monte Carlo techniques for improved probabilistic design of variability in products and systems”, 6th International Conference on Research into Design (ICoRD), Accepted, In Press, (2017).
  2. N. Raghavan and D.D. Frey, “Real-time update of multi-state system reliability using prognostics data-driven techniques”, 62nd IEEE Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), pp.1-5, (2016).
  3. N. Raghavan and D.D. Frey, “Particle filter approach to lifetime prediction for microelectronic devices and systems with multiple failure mechanisms”, 26th European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 55, No. 9, pp. 1297-1301, (2015).
  4. N. Raghavan and D.D.  Frey, “Remaining useful life estimation for systems subject to multiple degradation mechanisms”, IEEE Conference on Prognostics and Health Management (PHM), pp. 1-8, (2015).
  5. N. Raghavan, D.D. Frey and K.L. Pey, “Prognostic methodology for remaining useful life estimation of retention loss in nanoscale resistive switching memory”, 25th European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 54, Issue 9, pp.1729-1734, (2014).
  6. N. Raghavan, K.L. Pey and D.D. Frey, “Noise based prognostic design for real-time degradation analysis of dielectric breakdown”, 60th IEEE Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), pp.370-376, Orlando, Florida, (2013).
  7. N. Raghavan, K. Shubhakar and K.L. Pey, “Monte Carlo evidence for need of improved percolation model for non-Weibullian degradation in high-κ dielectrics”, 60th IEEE Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), pp.839-845, Orlando, Florida, (2013).

ELECTROMIGRATION / INTERCONNECT RELIABILITY

  1. A. Heryanto, K.L. Pey, Y.K. Lim, N. Raghavan, W. Liu, J. Wei, C.L. Gan and J.B. Tan, “Stress migration risk on electromigration reliability in advanced narrow line copper interconnects”,Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 110, Issue 8, 083702, (2011).
  2. A. Heryanto, K.L. Pey, Y.K. Lim, W. Liu, N. Raghavan, J. Wei, C.L. Gan, M.K. Lim and J.B. Tan, “The effect of stress migration on electromigration in dual damascene copper interconnects”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 109, Issue 1, 013716, (2011).
  3. A. Heryanto, K.L. Pey, Y.K. Lim, W. Liu, J. Wei, N. Raghavan, J.B. Tan and D.K. Sohn, “Study of stress migration and electromigration interaction in copper / low-κ interconnects”, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), Anaheim, California, pp.586-590, (2010).
  4. N. Raghavan and K. Prasad, “Statistical outlook into the physics of failure for copper low-K intra-metal dielectric breakdown”, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), Quebec, Canada, pp.819-824, (2009).
  5. X. Li, C.M. Tan and N. Raghavan – “Predictive dynamic simulation for void nucleation during electromigration in ULSI interconnects”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 105, 014305, (2009).
  6. C.M. Tan and N. Raghavan – “A bimodal 3-parameter Lognormal Mixture Distribution for Electromigration Failures”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 516, pp.8804-8809, (2008).
  7. N. Raghavan and C.M. Tan, “Statistical Modeling of Via Redundancy Effects on Interconnect Reliability”, 15th IEEE International Symposium on the Physics and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA), Singapore, pp.67-71, (2008).
  8. C.M. Tan, N. Raghavan and A. Roy – “Application of Gamma Distribution in Electromigration for Submicron Interconnects”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 102, No. 10, 103703, (2007).
  9. C.M. Tan and N. Raghavan – “Unveiling the Electromigration Physics of ULSI Interconnects through Statistics”, Semiconductor Science and Technology, Vol. 22, pp.941-946, (2007).
  10. C.M. Tan and N. Raghavan – “An approach to Statistical Analysis of Gate Oxide Breakdown Mechanisms”, 18th European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics & Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 47, Issues 9 – 11, pp.1336-1342, (2007).
  11. N. Raghavan and C.M. Tan, “Statistical Analysis of Multi-Censored Electromigration Data using the EM Algorithm”, 14th IEEE International Symposium on the Physics and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA), Bangalore, India, pp.257-262, (2007).

RELIABILITY & MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING

  1. C.M. Tan and N. Raghavan, “Imperfect predictive maintenance model for multi-state systems with multiple failure modes and element failure dependency”, IEEE Prognostics and Health Management Conference (PHM), pp.1-12, Macau, China, (2010).
  2. C.M. Tan and N. Raghavan – “Reply to Comments on ‘A framework to practical predictive maintenance modeling for multi-state systems’”, Reliability Engineering & System Safety, Vol. 94, Issue 3, pp.781-782, (2009).
  3. C.M. Tan and N. Raghavan – “A Framework to Practical Predictive Maintenance Modeling for Multi-State Systems”, Reliability Engineering and System Safety, Vol. 93, Issue 8, pp.1138-1150, (2008).
  4. C.M. Tan and N. Raghavan – “Root Cause Analysis based maintenance policy”, International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management (IJQRM), Vol. 24, No. 2, pp.203 – 228. (2007).
  5. C.M. Tan and N. Raghavan – “A comprehensive predictive maintenance model for equipment maintenance in the semiconductor industry”, IFAC Workshop on Advanced Process Control for Semiconductor Manufacturing, Singapore, (2006).
  6. C.M. Tan and N. Raghavan – “A cost model for the predictive maintenance of a multi-state system”, 10th Maintenance and Reliability Conference (MARCON), University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA, (2006).
  7. N. Raghavan and C.M. Tan – “Examine the impact of maintenance policy for predictive maintenance”, 4th International Conference on Quality and Reliability (ICQR), Beijing, China, (2005).

SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE PHYSICS

  1. C.M. Tan, N. Raghavan, L. Sun, C. Hsu and C. Wang, “Comparative study of non-standard power diodes”, 4th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), pp.3307-3314, Xian, China, (2009).
  2. C.M. Tan, L. Sun, N. Raghavan, G. Huang, C. Hsu and C. Wang, “The Physical Limit and Manufacturability of Power Diode with Carrier Lifetime Control”, 2nd IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), pp.46-51, Harbin, China, (2007).
  3. N. Raghavan, N. Hwang and C.M. Tan – “A comprehensive semi-empirical mobility model for strained-Si NMOSFETs”, 8th IEEE International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuits Technology (ICSICT), Shanghai, China (2006).