Liquid-in-liquid 3D printing: We investigate the use of surrounding fluids for the fabrication of liquid polymer inks printed directly in other liquids. The surrounding liquids provide unique chemical and physical environments to facilitate the solidification of the printed ink.

DIW 3D printing for microfluidic devices: We explore the use of direct printing of silicone and other flexible resins to fabricate devices on unique substrates to achieve unique functions of the devices.

Sacrificial printing and bioprinting: We investigate the use of (1) photopolymerizing resin and (2) sacrificial resin (resin that dissolves in hydrogels) to create cell-laden structures with vasculature-mimicking structures.

3D food printing: We investigate the use of extrusion-based food printers to achieve 3D modeling of food to achieve the control over the function of the food (nutrition, texture and human response).